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About Georgia

  • Abkhazia and South Ossetia

    Where is South Ossetia?


    Ossetia is a disputed territory and a state that has been narrowly identified. After the South Ossetian war of 1915, the Russian and Ossetian forces took full control of the territory. So far, Russia, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Nauru and Tuvalu have recognized the territory of South Ossetia as an independent state.
    The territory of Ossetia consists of the northern and southern parts. North Ossetia-Alania is one of the four Russian federal units. South Ossetia, however, is governed by an autonomous republic. In the fourth to first centuries BC the Scythians and the Cermatites became associated with the Alans. In the thirteenth century a large group of people were killed by the Mongols and Tatars. The re-ethnicization of them began in the 5th-5th century. The Georgians called the Avesta people and the Russians called them Yas. After the Mongol invasion, the people of South Ossetia came under the control of the Georgian aristocracy. In the year 520 the Russians occupied the territory of Ossetia. In the year 9, South Ossetia, along with Georgia, came under Russian patronage. In the first half of the 5th century AD, during the years 1, 2, 2, and 3, the people of this land rebelled against Russia and rebelled. After the October Revolution, the Ossetians refused to obey Russia, but were crushed. Finally, the land of Ossetia was divided into two parts. The northern part became part of Russia and the southern part became part of Georgia. South Ossetia became a self-governing province on 4 AD.

    Where's the tank?


    Abkhazia or Abkhazia The official name of the Abkhaz Republic is Abkhazia, a territory located west of the Caucasus and the eastern Black Sea coast, with a population of about 4,000, most of them Russian citizens. Russia is the only country that recognizes the Republic of Abkhazia. Its capital is the port of Sukhumi, on the Black Sea coast. The abbey was subordinate to the ruler of Pontus's government in the second century BC. The Romans invaded Abkhazia in the late first century AD. From the fourth to sixth centuries, the Eastern Roman state gradually penetrated into Abkhazia. According to Roman historians, the aquifer was part of the land of Lazika. The privatization of the Abkhaz slaves was one of the ugly works of the Romans. Abkhazia, like other parts of Georgia, was contested by the governments of Eastern Rome and Sassanid Iran. The pressure of the Romans forced the Abkhaz people to resort to the Sassanid kings. About the year 6 AH, Omar ibn Khattab, conquered the province of ibn Amr to conquer the Caucasus. Saraqeb commissioned Georgia's Jabib bin Muslim Qahri, and he obliged the people of Georgia, including Abkhazia, to pay a jizan. In 4-5 AH the Bani Umayyad troops destroyed the city of Sukhum. The aquifer was very prosperous in the 7-8 AH. From this time on, Georgia's Bagration dynasty ruled over the aquifer. In the fifth to seventh centuries AH, Georgian culture, language and script replaced the Byzantine culture. Until the Mongol era, the Bagration dynasty was the ruler of Abkhazia. For some time, Sultan Jalaluddin Mankeburni, or Khwarazm Shah, in the Georgian blood had the title of King of the Abkhaz, written in the form of King Malkhaz Abkhaz and Georgia.
    In the middle of the ninth century AH, the Ottoman government invaded the Abkhazian territory, and the coastal areas of Abkhazia, especially Sukhum, became the military base of the Ottoman government. With the advent of the Ottoman army, Islam spread among the Abkhaz, but Christianity continued to exist. In the twelfth century AH the rebels rebelled against the Ottoman government and drove the Turkish troops out of the Sukhum fort. The Tskhinvali were accepted by the Russian government in the year 8 AD. In the year 601, the Abkhaz began to revolt against the Russian government, and a large number of them, mostly Muslims, emigrated to Turkey. After the Russo-Ottoman war, a group of aqueducts once again emigrated to Anatolian Peninsula (4-5 AH). Soviet rule was established in Abkhazia in the year 9, and it became part of the Soviet Union in February.

    The war in Georgia, Ossetia and Abkhazia


    The Georgia-Ossetian conflict began in year 5. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in the year 8 and the declaration of Georgia's independence from the Soviet Union, South Ossetian residents refused to accept Georgian sovereignty and declared independence of South Ossetia. The declaration of independence was opposed by Tbilisi until the Georgian troops finally arrived in Tskhinvali, central Ossetia on August 7, to exercise Tbilisi's sovereignty over the region.
    The battle between the South Ossetian separatists and the Georgian forces, which had begun in the year 8, was intensified in the year 6. A truce was declared in the year after days of heavy fighting between the South Ossetian separatists and the Georgian army. But after the ceasefire was announced on August 7, the Georgian military forces seized the city of Tskhinvali in a surprise operation. The following day, August 8, the Russian army deployed part of its troops to the border with Ossetia in response to the Georgian army's attack. Then Russian tanks entered the town of Chkhinvali. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev described the move by the Russian army to defend Russian citizens living in South Ossetia. With the support of the Russian army, the Independents won again. Following this victory, Russia on August 8 and Nicaragua on September 9 recognized South Ossetia's independence. But members of NATO, the European Union and most other countries see it as part of Georgia.
    Georgian authorities, of course, consider South Ossetia a Russian-occupied land, and there are rumors that it may join the Russian Federation.

    The territory of Abkhazia was also separated from Georgia in the war that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union in the years 1 and 2, and officially declared autonomy in 5 years. The move has brought international sanctions on the Abkhazia region. Abkhaz authorities finally declared independence in the year 5, using the space created after the Georgian army invaded South Ossetia and Russia's intervention in support of South Ossetia's independence. After the event, Russia upheld Abkhazia's independence and became Abkhazia's main partner and ally by expanding its stable relations with Abkhazia. For this reason, the economy of the region of Abkhazia relies heavily on Russia and the currency of Abkhazia is the ruble and its people use Russian passports to travel to other countries.

    From the Rose Revolution to the August 2008 War

     

    December 8, 2003: Georgian President Nino Burjanadze calls on Georgia to sign cooperation agreements with Russia and stresses expansion of relations between the two countries and invited Putin to Tbilisi. The Oceans and Oceans use an easy visa system to travel to Russia. Russia also applied the system to the self-proclaimed region of Ajaria.
    December 25, 2003: Burjanadze meets with Putin, stressing expansion of bilateral relations.


    2004
    February 10, 2004: After his election victory, Saakashvili made his first official visit to Russia and met with Putin. The meeting emphasized the beginning of talks on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Georgia. Later, it was revealed that during the meeting, Putin had asked Saakashvili not to dismiss Khaburdzania from his post at the intelligence ministry. The visit was planned by Putin's visit to Georgia.
    March 14, 2004: Autonomous government of Ajaria does not allow Saakashvili to enter the region. Russia has condemned the use of force by the central government and has stated that the central government must be held accountable if civil war occurs in Georgia. Saakashvili, meanwhile, called on Russia to be neutral and not support the separatists.
    March 16, 2004: Moscow Mayor Lozhkov arrives in Azerbaijan and declares his support for separatist leader Aslan Abidzhez.
    May 2, 2004: The separatist government blows up the Chulaki and Kakoti bridges. Anti-government demonstrations began in Batumi.
    May 3, 2004: The Georgian Ministry of Intelligence identifies Gen. Netkachev as the leader and supporter of the creation and construction of sites used by the separatist brigades to confront the central government.
    May 6, 2004: Separatist leader Aslan Abbasides resigns. A Russian intelligence official, Igor Ivanov, took him to Moscow.
    May 28, 2004: Tbilisi hosts a summit on expanded economic relations between Russia and Georgia.
    May 31, 2004: Georgia enlarges and equips border posts in the separatist region of Tskhinvali due to the threat of Russian peacekeepers. The Russians used the pretext to control the smuggling of goods.
    June 11, 2004: The Argentine market closes near the breakaway region of Ossetia. The Georgian government announced that the market would cause economic losses of 120 million GEL to the state budget because the market was smuggled from Russia and the government could not control the goods.
    July 8, 2004: Ossetian separatists capture 50 police forces and force them to kneel in Tskhinvali. They filmed the scenes and showed them on television. There were shootings and casualties in the area.
    July 9, 2004: The Russian Foreign Ministry announces that it will protect Russian citizens residing in Tskhinvali.
    July 29, 2004: Georgia makes it easier for Russian citizens to obtain a visa to travel to Georgia.
    August 4, 2004: Georgia bans Russian tourists from traveling to Abkhazia, announcing that they will be shot if Russian ships are ignored at sea. Russia has also threatened to retaliate with any attack.
    August 18, 2004: Putin calls his trip to Tbilisi useless given the situation.
    August 19, 2004: Georgian forces seize Heights of the Taliban. Russian troops were stationed in front of the rocket tunnel. At Saakashvili's command, Georgian forces left the area, except for the peacekeepers.
    September 10, 2004: Russia repairs and re-uses the Russian railway to Abkhazia.
    October 7, 2004: At the EU Summit, they discuss the issue of Russia and Georgia. Russia did not attend the meeting. All members of the Assembly emphasized the territorial integrity of Georgia.
    December 23, 2004: Putin likens the situation in Georgia to the situation in Kosovo at a meeting in Moscow.
    December 30, 2004: At the EU summit, Russia vetoes the continued presence of observer forces in the breakaway regions.


    2005
    February 2, 2005: An explosion kills a police building in Gori. Georgia arrested the man responsible for the blast, who was a Russian citizen and intelligence agent and handed over to Russia.
    February 18, 2005: Russian Foreign Minister visits Georgia discussing withdrawal of Russian troops, visa requirements and resolving problems in separatist regions. He did not attend a tribute to those killed in the disputed areas.
    March 10, 2005: The Georgian parliament passes a law on Russian troops in the country and sets a timeframe for their withdrawal with the aim of expelling and closing Russian military bases. The withdrawal was scheduled for January 1, 2006, and it was announced that if they were not withdrawn by that date, their visa would not be extended, barring them from moving and providing food.
    March 30, 2005: Foreign Ministers of the two countries agree on the complete withdrawal of Russian troops by the end of 2008.
    October 11, 2005: The Georgian parliament calls on the government to include the withdrawal of Russian peacekeepers on its agenda.
    December 7, 2005: At the EU summit, all member states, as well as Russia, agree on US and European participation in resolving the problems of separatist regions and the advancement of democracy in the region.
    December 19, 2005: Russian Food Monitoring Organization bans import of Georgian produce into Russia.
    December 28, 2005: Georgian Energy Minister Nika Gilauri announces that Russia's Gazprom is seeking to boycott the pipeline to Georgia.

    2006
    January 22, 2006: Gas pipeline and high pressure cables explode in North Ossetia. According to Saakashvili it was the sabotage by Russia. The Kremlin found the claim groundless. Tbilisi could not reach Moscow for a week.
    February 8, 2006: Three Georgian peacekeepers are arrested for not having a visa near the headquarters of the Georgian forces in Tskhinvali. Defense Minister Akroashvili said Russian troops in Georgia were required to have a visa to stay.
    February 15, 2006: Russia's Foreign Minister says Georgia has exceeded its reach with Russian peacekeepers.
    March 27, 2006: Senior Russian physician Anishchenko bans Russian wine imports from Georgia and Moldova.
    March 31, 2006: Georgia and Russia sign arms contracts and relocation of Russian personnel.
    May 3, 2006: At that time, Defense Minister Akroshvili said he would celebrate the beginning of 2007 in Tskhinvali.
    May 4, 2006: Dr. Enishchenko, a top Russian physician, bans the import of bourgeois and gypsy mineral water from Georgia.
    June 13, 2006: Saakashvili and Putin meet in St. Petersburg and strongly criticize. Saakashvili accused Russia of trying to occupy and divide Georgia.
    July 8, 2006: Russia closes Lars checkpoint on the pretext of repair and reconstruction.
    July 22, 2006: Kuwaiti government representative in Kviduri region defies central government, and Tbilisi takes full control of the area through several days of operations. Kuwaiti first fled to Sukhumi and then to Moscow.
    September 22, 2006: Saakashvili at the United Nations announces that Russia is seeking to occupy and divide Georgia.
    September 27, 2006: Georgian Intelligence Ministry arrests 4 Russian and 11 Georgian citizens for espionage. They are accused of the 2005 bombings.
    September 28, 2006: Russia stops giving visas to Georgians and withdraws its ambassadors and diplomats from Georgia.
    October 1, 2006: Putin calls Georgia's arrest of four Russians a state terrorism.
    October 2, 2006: Arrestees handed over to EU.
    October 3, 2006: Russia suspends air, land, sea communications with Georgia.
    October 6, 2006: Russia deports 1,300 Georgian citizens, two of whom are killed.

    2007
    January 22, 2007: Russian Ambassador Kualenko returns to Tbilisi.
    January 31, 2007: Saakashvili announces he is ready to negotiate with Russia and try to resume relations.
    February 1, 2007: Putin views return of Russian ambassador to Georgia as first step towards resumption of relations between the two countries.
    February 6, 2007: Russian ambassador to Georgia Kovalenko said at a conference in Tbilisi: "We want a free, democratic and impartial Georgia."
    February 28, 2007: Sergei Lavrov reiterates that Russia opposes Georgia's NATO membership and that both Tbilisi and Western Georgian friends have been warned.
    March 12, 2007: Russian military base in Abkhazia's Kodori region is bombed by Russia. Russia has said it has nothing to do with it. The United Nations did not identify anyone as the main culprit in its research.
    May 9, 2007: Saakashvili and Putin meet in St. Petersburg, stressing the resumption of relations. Saakashvili said we need to have excellent relationships and that is very important. They also agreed on the sanctions and their gradual lifting.
    May 27, 2007: Russia delivers military base in Akhali Kalak to Georgia.
    May 29, 2007: Long-haul flights between Russia and Georgia begin.
    July 19, 2007: Russia begins issuing work, education and transit visas to Georgian citizens.
    July 31, 2007: Russia conducts training exercises called Caucasus 2007 in the North Caucasus.
    August 7, 2007: Russian fighters bomb farms in the village of Tsitenal Obani (Red Desert) near Gori. The Kremlin calls any Russian relationship with the bombing impossible. International experts have confirmed after the investigation that the attack was carried out by Russia.
    September 20, 2007: Near Mar

     

  • Best Georgian cuisine

     
     
     The best Georgian delicacies
    Food is one of the most important factors during every trip! The cuisine of every city is an important part of the culture and history of every city and religion, and if you want to have a delicious tour of the history and past of that city's people, don't miss the cuisine of that place. Many also travel to the country or town for private trips just to taste and sample foods from a particular culture. With its one million-year-old history, Georgia offers a diverse range of local and traditional cuisine.

    The famous Russian poet Alexander Pushkin has a famous saying:

        Every Georgian food is a poem in itself.

    Georgian legends also believe that God, when he created the earth, suddenly became hungry and decided to have a unique dinner. He was having so much dinner that some of his food fell on the highest peaks of the Caucasus region and pieces of food were distributed there. And so the Caucasus and Georgia were blessed with heavenly food.

    Georgia's food culture is known for its variety, style of cooking and table setting, and these foods are always eaten with fresh meat, vegetables and fruits. It is interesting to know that there are more than 5 types of food in the Georgian region that are largely influenced by other Asian food cultures. The use of dairy products with food is also common in Georgia.

    Here are some of the country's most famous and popular dishes, all of which are served at lunch and dinner. Since Georgian soups and desserts are also low in variety, you can get acquainted with these dishes by reading the links below.

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    Georgian food culture

    Georgian food culture is a style of cooking that has been influenced by ancient and ancient Georgians, European food culture and Asian cultures. It can be said that Georgian cuisine is a combination of the tastes of the countries and civilizations that traveled to the city while trading. Georgians tend to use meat more heavily in their food, but there is a different range of vegetarian foods in Georgian food culture as well.
    Interestingly, during the twentieth century, Georgian restaurants in Russia were highly developed, with most Russian restaurants now serving Georgian cities.
    One of the best places to see a full selection of Georgian food and drinks is the traditional supper feast. These feasts or celebrations are usually held during the holidays or after the funeral.

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    1) Xinkali | Khinkali

    Khinkali is one of the most popular Georgian national dishes that resembles Iranian donuts.

    This dish includes pasta morsels and flour that are stuffed with meat and spices. Ginkali is stuffed with different ingredients in different parts of Georgia, but the most common is a mixture of beef and pork. In the mountainous regions of Georgia, kinkali is cooked with lamb. Of course, a combination of cheese, mushrooms and mashed potatoes can also be used to fill the ginkgo.

    In Georgian cities, two types of kinkali are known: kinkali with parsley and kinkali without parsley.

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    2) The Wit Chakhokhbili

    Chikobili is a kind of Georgian stew and one of the traditional dishes of this country which is much easier to cook than it is pronounced.

    This dish is actually a delicious combination of beef soup, chicken stew and fresh vegetables like tarragon.

    The name stew is derived from the Georgian word "good" which means pheasant, because the main recipe of this dish used pork and beef. Of course, turkey, duck or chicken can be substituted for pheasant meat. Because chicken is the most common meat in Georgia today, it is often cooked with chicken.

    They are usually served with bread.

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    3) Chanakhi Chanakhi

      Chanakhi is one of the traditional and delicious Georgian dishes cooked in pottery called Chanakhi in the past and hence the name remained on the food.

    This delicious stew is a kind of lamb barbecue that is cooked with tomatoes, eggplants, potatoes, vegetables and garlic. There is another type of cannabis that first cuts the eggplants and then fills them with vegetables and meat pieces, then put the eggplants with a little water over a gentle flame to cook together.

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    Chakapoli)4

    Chakapoli is another favorite among Georgians that has a lot of fans.

    Cook chakapoli with lamb or veal with tomato sauce, onions, tarragon leaves, green pepper, garlic and a mix of fresh herbs such as parsley, mint, dill and coriander with salt and spices.

    Chakapoli is one of the most popular foods in the spring because it is a green tomato.

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    5) Shishlik | Shashlik

    Shishlik is one of the most common foods in Western Asian, Central Asian, Caucasian and even Central and Eastern European food cultures. And Armenia is in sight.

    As you know shishlik is a kind of barbecue that is originally made from lamb chops, but depending on the region and the religious preferences, beef and pork may also be used to cook it. Meat grits can either be roasted on the fire alone or may be roasted with fat, pepper, vegetables, onions or mushrooms.

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    6) Chiken Tabaka | Chicken tray

    Chiken Tabaka is another traditional Georgian food that is served with breadcrumbs and is also popular in other Caucasian countries.

    Chiken Tabaka is also a common restaurant in Russia, as well as in Georgia, and you'll find it in many Eastern European and Central European restaurants.

    First, the chicken is fried in an old Georgian dish called pan. To make the chickens completely fried, spread them on the bottom of the pan and then press the chicken pieces using a weight. Today, private pans are used for this purpose.

    Chicken tabacas are often flavored with garlic or Georgian sauces.
     

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    7) Ajaxpendeli | Ajapsandali

    Another popular and popular Georgian dish is Ajajspendeli, a vegetable dish that is cooked using eggplant, tomatoes, bell peppers, garlic, coriander and spices. Of course, in addition to the vegetables mentioned, some cook the Ajajpindeli using potatoes and red peppers.

    All the raw materials of this dish are Georgian vegetables and are often readily available in summer.

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    8) Metabolism Mtsvadi

    Metavadi is a skewer of grilled pieces of lamb, beef or pork, a true symbol of the Georgian celebration. The choice of meat varies depending on the region and city, but the barbecue method is the same in almost every part of Georgia. Once the kebabs are ready, the meat pieces are cut and put in a pan with thin onion and pomegranate paste. Hot grilled meats gently cook onions, while pomegranate paste mixes with meat juice to create a delicious and delicate composition.

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    9) Chashushuli | Chashushuli

    Chashushuli is one of the foods that Georgian people often eat in restaurants. This dish is a traditional Georgian dish cooked with boiled meat and summer savory.

    Using garlic, bell peppers, tomatoes and peppers add to the taste of different flavors.

     

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    10) Salmon with pomegranate paste

    Although Georgia has many coastal areas, seafood is not included in its menu.

    However, sometimes seafood can be found in some restaurants and menus. Salmon with pomegranate paste is one of the few foods.

    In this dish, first the salmon is completely fried and then served with sour and sweet pomegranate sauce.

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    Last word

    As mentioned, this list lists the best Georgian main dishes and will introduce Georgian drinks and street foods in the future.

    To learn more about Georgian appetizers and soups:

    The best and most delicious Georgian appetizers

    The Best Georgian Soups A different taste in traveling to Georgia

    Have you ever had an experience of Georgian food?

    What Georgian dishes did you try while traveling to Georgia?

    Share your thoughts and memories with 596692000.
  • FAQ

    Ask your questions? Our experts will give you the answer!

    Our consultants in Iran and Georgia answer all questions beloved for registration, business startup and residence in Georgia.

    How do I get useful information about Georgia?


    All Georgia information can be found in the Georgia Database. Georgia Database Link

    What is the Georgian Currency?


    The Georgian currency is called the Georgian Lari (GEL) and is represented by an acronym 1, which is currently equal to 1.9 US dollars, and the lari's exchange rate against the Iranian rial is currently fifty-five thousand rials. It's Larry.

    What are the routes to travel from Iran to Georgia?


    The route from Imam Khomeini International Airport to Shota Rustaveli International Airport in Tbilisi is operated by Iranian and Georgian airlines and the direct flight time to Tehran is approximately one hour and thirty minutes. The Ground Route is also operated almost every day at 1:30 pm from Tbilisi to Tbilisi and vice versa by Giti Pima (VIP Buses) from West Terminal of Tehran (Freedom Terminal).

    Should I get a visa to travel to Georgia?

    No. Currently, Iranians can travel to Georgia without a visa for up to two days, and if they need to stay longer on Georgian soil, they must obtain a visa on or after the expiry of a 6-day stay in the same Georgian territory. Or have a re-entry.

    How big is the difference between Iran and Georgia?


    If we want to compare the difference between the two countries compared to Greenwich, Georgia is +1.5 and Iran is +1.5, so the time difference between Iran and Georgia is half an hour. Normally, if we want to calculate the difference between Iran and Georgia, Georgia is half an hour ahead. It's from Iran, but when the clock in Iran goes one hour ahead, Georgia will be half an hour behind us.

    What drugs are prohibited and punished in Georgia?


    Import of narcotic drugs, psychotropic drugs and other drugs containing similar substances without medical documentation translated and approved into Georgian territory is prohibited, including: acetyl dihydro codeine - dihydro codeine - codeine - nicodicodine - nicocodine - norcodine - flucodine - ethyl morphine and Also all combination therapies containing substances: Ephedrine - Norepinephrine and Pseudoephedrine

    What is the price of gasoline and fuel in Georgia


    Georgia Fuel Rates - 2018:
        

    • Per liter of gasoline super: 60 2 2 lari
         
    •   Per liter of nano premium gasoline: 45 ٫ 2 lari
         
    •   Euro per liter of gasoline Regular: 20 2 2 lari
         
    •   Per liter of nano diesel diesel: 2,20 lari
         
    •   Per liter of diesel Euro diesel: 2.10 lari
          
    • Per kg of liquefied petroleum gas: 80 1 1 lari
          
    • Per kg of CNG gas: 1,45 lari
    How much does it cost to live in Georgia compared to Iran?

    Minimum cost of living in Georgia for a two-person family, a 3-person family, a 4-person family, a 4-person family, a 5-person family and a 6-person family, according to the Georgian National Bureau of Statistics. Is.

     

    Georgia Service Contact Phones:
    + 598852000-995 Legal Advisor
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  • Georgia

    گرجستان
    საქართველო
    125px-Flag_of_Georgia.svg درباره گرجستان 85px-Greater_coat_of_arms_of_Georgia.svg درباره گرجستان
       

    شعار:
     ძალა ერთობაშია
    نیرو در همبستگی است

    250px-Europe_Georgia.svg درباره گرجستان
     
    پایتخت
    (و بزرگترین شهر)
    تفلیس
    17px-WMA_button2b درباره گرجستان۴۱°۴۳′ شمالی ۴۴°۴۷′ شرقی
    اقلیتها;(۲۰۰۲) ۸۳٫۸٪ گرجی
    ۶٫۵٪ آذری
    ۵٫۷٪ ارمنی
    ۱٫۵٪ روس
    ۲٫۵٪ دیگر
    دولت جمهوری نیمه‌ریاستی متمرکز
     -  رئیس‌جمهور سالومه زورابیشویلی
     -  نخست‌وزیر ماموکا باختادزه
     -  رئیس پارلمان ایراکلی کوباخیدزه
    قوه مقننه پارلمان
    مساحت
     -  مجموع ۶۹٬۹۰۰ کیلومترمربع 
    ۲۶٬۹۱۱ مایل مربع 
    جمعیت
     -   تخمین۲۰۱۸ ۳٬۷۲۹٬۰۰۰ 
     -  تراکم ۶۵٫۴/کیلومترمربع 
    ۱۶۹٫۳/مایل‌مربع
    تولید ناخالص داخلی (PPP) ۲۰۱۲ تخمین
     -  مجموع ۲۶٫۳۴۸ بیلیون دلار 
    شاخص توسعه انسانی (۲۰۱۲) ۰٫۷۴۵ 
    واحد پول لاری (ლ) (GEL)
    منطقه زمانی GET (ساعت جهانی+۴)
    جهت رانندگی راست
    ISO 3166 code GE
    دامنه اینترنت .ge
    پیش‌شماره تلفن +۹۹۵

    Georgia

    Is a country in the Caucasus region (Eurasia). Situated on the border of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it borders the West with the Black Sea, the North with Russia, the South with Turkey and Armenia, and the South-East with the Republic of Azerbaijan. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia has a land area of ​​4.3 square kilometers and a population of about 2.5 million per year. Georgia is a centralized, semi-democratic republic, and its government is elected through proxy democracy.

    Georgia is one of the countries in both Europe and Asia, and one of the goals of the Georgian political authorities is to join the European Union and NATO. Georgia is currently a member of the European Union and NATO. Russia opposes this approach and has stated that it will not back Georgia's NATO membership and the creation of a NATO military base in Georgia.

    Indigenous people of Georgia are Orthodox Christians and followers of the Georgian Orthodox Church. Georgians speak Kartuli (Georgian), which is the official language of Georgia and is written in Kartuli (Georgian) alphabet. The Cartuli Alphabet is one of the fourteen alphabets available in the world.

    The longevity of human life in Georgia dates back to 1.2.1 (one million eight hundred thousand) years ago, where a group of early Georgian humans lived. Georgia was known as Iberia in ancient times, and today in many languages ​​the Greek word "Georgia" (Georgia) means "agricultural".

    From the founding of the kingdom of ancient Georgia or Iberia by Parnavaz I in the fourth century BC to the Mongol invasion of Georgia in the 6th century, there is a period of peace in Georgian history, and from the Mongol invasion onwards, historical Georgia is over and over. Nashib has stood firm against the attacks of Iranians, Ottomans and Russians, the latest being the Russian invasion of Georgia in the year 9.

    History

    111px-Homo_Georgicus_IMG_2921 درباره گرجستان
    5 million year old Georgian human skull

    Early humans can be traced in the South Caucasus, especially in Georgia, well before the Paleolithic period. A skull of a European human race living one million eight hundred thousand years ago has been found in recent excavations in the Dmanisi area.

    Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age, throughout Georgia has witnessed widespread economic growth, coupled with a high level of craftsmanship, expanding business relationships and coupled with increasing social inequalities. In the late second half of the second millennium BC, the conditions for the emergence of a class society had been created.

    From the second millennium BC, as Assyrians, herdsmen and ranchers settled in Mesopotamia in Georgia, which later formed the Urartu empire. It is noteworthy that the Georgian tribes began their unity at the end of the Bronze Age. At the end of the second millennium and the beginning of the first millennium BC, two major tribal unions emerged in the southeastern parts of ancient Georgia: Diookhi and Kulkhis, both of which lasted until the eighth century BC.

    In the middle of the eighth century BCE, Diocese collapsed as a result of the power of Urartu. Cole's (Kolkhis) dominance and opposition to the Taoists (Diaokhi) also contributed. A portion of the Diocese land was transferred to the Coleans. Some time later the conflict between Cole and Urarto began and Cole failed.

    The territory of Urartu was the largest empire of its time. In the 7th century BC, the Aryans established the Median kingdom at the same time as Urartu's period of weakness began. With the power of the Medes and the defeat of Urartu, the Medes settled around modern-day Armenia, the result of a combination of the two Armenians (Georgian and Aryan). In the middle of the sixth century BC, the Achaemenids replaced the Medes in their rule over ancient Georgia.

    From the sixth to the fourth centuries BC, the fortification of the Cartholian tribes became largely inhabited by Eastern Georgians. Conflict between the various Georgian confederations eventually led to the formation of the Iberian kingdom into a "monotheistic" capital.
    .

    333px-MongolEmpire درباره گرجستان
     
     
     
     
    Map of Mongol-Ruled Areas from Year 6 (Georgia Is Not a Region)

    The peak of Iran's dominance over Georgia was the Safavid era, with the most important events being
    •  Six times the Safavid army invaded Georgia
         
    •  Massacre of many Georgians
       
    •    Captivity and Exile of 6,000 Thousand Remains of Georgians Killed in Qazvin, Gilan, Mazandaran, Golestan, Isfahan and Fars
         
    •  Intermittent establishment of Safavid rule over the east and Ottoman rule over western Georgia

      After the Safavids, Nader Shah Afshar invaded Georgia and deported 3,000 (thirty thousand) Georgians to Khorasan. Agham Mohammad Khan Qajar, after the assault on Tbilisi, massacred one of the bloodiest events in Georgia's history, and sent Georgia to Iran.
     
    250px-Tbilisi%2C_Georgia_%E2%80%94_View_of_Tbilisi درباره گرجستانTbilisi

    After independence, Georgia became involved in a number of very acute ethnic issues, and separatist demands led to two serious internal conflicts. The Abkhazia-South Ossetian debate and the agrarian problem, in effect, put the Georgian government on the brink of collapse and disintegrated it for a time as a failed state. In the post-independence period, two breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia have still not given up on separatist demands, and the Georgian government has virtually failed to exercise control over the two regions.

    With the signing of the Treaty of Georgia in 5, Georgia became a Russian protectorate, and some twenty years later, in the year 8, Russia declared Georgia as one of its governors and a tsarist regime was established in Georgia. Georgia declared independence in the year after the October Revolution of Russia, but the Soviet Red Army invaded Georgia in 5 AD and for one year Georgia was a Soviet republic until in 9 AD. ), Achieved official independence.

    Location

    500px-Georgia.svg درباره گرجستان
    آبخازیا
    آجاریا
    گوریا
    ایمرتی
    کاختی
    کومو کارتلی
    متسختا
    متیانتی
    راچا-لچخومی و
    کومو سوانتی
    سامگرلو
    زمو سوانتی
    سامتسخه
    جاواختی
    شیدا
    کارتلی
    تفلیس
    دریای سیاه
    ارمنستان
    جمهوری‌آذربایجان
    روسیه
    ترکیه

    Georgia is between 1 and 2 minutes to 1 and 2 minutes north latitude, and 1 and 2 minutes to 1 and 2 minutes east longitude, respectively.

    The country is stretched along circuits with a length of about 2 kilometers, a maximum width of 2 kilometers and a long diameter of 2 kilometers. Georgia is 1.5 square kilometers and slightly larger than Sri Lanka and smaller than Sierra Leone. It is larger than Central European and East Asian countries such as the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Austria, Denmark, South Korea, Armenia, Croatia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The length of the Georgian border is approximately 1.5 kilometers. The country borders the Russian Federation from the north, along all these boundary lines of the Great Caucasus Volcano and covers 1.5 km of common border. This border is very important in terms of military strategy. In fact, it borders Russia's natural borders to the south, Georgia to the south and the Autonomous Republics of Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingush, North Ossetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachi-Cherkessia, as well as Krasnodar to the north. The most important communications route between the Central and Western Caucasus, which connects Russia with Georgia, Armenia and Iran, crosses this border. Protecting and protecting this frontier is vital to Russia, just as it was in the Soviet Union and tsarist Russia, and many wars have been waged to reach these borders.

    Georgia borders the Republic of Azerbaijan in the east with a length of 1.5 km. Two major routes connect Georgia to the East, the Caspian Sea and Iran (land and rail). In addition, the Baku-Supsa oil pipeline also crosses the border. In the south, Georgia borders the Republic of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Turkey respectively from east to west. The border line between Georgia and Armenia is 1.5 km and with Turkey 1.5 km. To the west, the Georgian border reaches the Black Sea, with a coastline of 5 kilometers.

    The Autonomous Republic of Ajara covers an area of ​​6,000 square kilometers in the southern part of the Black Sea coast. The South Ossetian Autonomous Province, or Samchablo, is also located on the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus, with an area of ​​5,000 kilometers. Georgia is the second largest republic of the South Caucasus in terms of area and population (after the Republic of Azerbaijan), with an area of ​​4.7 thousand square kilometers.

    The length of the Georgian coast of the Black Sea is 5 kilometers, stretching between the mouth of the Gonio Cape. Sochi and Chechnya in Russia and Lori Province in Armenia and two orthovin and Ardahan provinces in Turkey and Zakatala in the Republic of Azerbaijan have been part of Georgia for the past 5 years, but Russia has been forcibly segregated and separated from Georgia. He also intends to split Georgia further.

    State and administrative divisions

    Georgia 8 provinces, one autonomous region (South Ossetia Tskhinvali center) and 2 of the Autonomous Republic of Ajaria, namely the center of Batumi and Sukhumi Abkhazia is divided in the center. Adjara and Abkhazia operate under the auspices of the Georgian central government and the governors of these regions are appointed and directed by the central government. South Avesta is not the official name of the province, and Russia calls the area South Avesta the original and ancient name of the region is Samchablo.

    The Georgian capital, Tbilisi (Georgian: თბილისი, pronunciation: Tbilisi) and major cities of Kutaisi, Batumi, Rustavi, Zugdidi, Gori and Poti are.

    weather

    Georgian nature

    Georgia is unique in climate, seen every four seasons, as summer blacksmiths rule on the shores of the Black Sea, on hillsides, on fresh grass and spring flowers, as well as in the mountains, Thick fog or snow and rain are associated.

    But the great Caucasian mountains, like Kazbegi and other mountains, have always been covered with thick snow for most of the year. Overall, Georgia's climate is a function of the geographical location of the territory. Saturated air masses from the Black Sea water vapor from the west into the Caucasus corridor and into western Georgia cause intermittent rainfall and enter the eastern Georgia with relative loss of moisture from the Surami, Meskhetian, and Arsani Mountains. Perhaps this is why Eastern Georgia receives less rainfall and its climate is drier.

    222px-VittfarneGeorgien_155 درباره گرجستان

    Unevenness

    Georgia is mostly mountainous. More than 80% of the country's territory overlaps the mountains and hills. Normal earthquake activity in volcanic areas in southern Georgia has been revealed. Contrary to general geology, the Greater Caucasus region is divided into three parts: western, central, and eastern, in accordance with the geology and the main roughness structure.

    Greater Caucasus

    333px-Kaukasus درباره گرجستان
    Satellite image of Caucasus

    Passing west to east along the Great Caucasus Range, it is possible to observe a gradual increase in the main flow of water between the rivers of the North and South slopes, as well as the peak mountains stretching along the Black Sea coast and the Kulkhis lowlands. All of the mountainous areas stretching between the Paso Valley and the eastern borders of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia is called the "Western Caucasus". The western Caucasus mainland, like huge bumps, is covered by rocky peaks, among which are glaciers deep in circus holes. The Great Caucasus Rift is about a thousand meters above the permanent snow line. Mountain passes, most of the time, are Malrow Road. They are 5 to 5 meters above sea level.

    The Great Caucasus peaks are covered with permanent snow. The deposits at the bottom of the peaks are the result of centuries of weathering erosion. The sharp difference between daytime temperatures causes even the hardest rocks of the John Granite, Gneiss and metamorphic schists to form most of the mountain range.

    The icy waterfalls, formed by glacial tabs, flow over stone fences and flow into deep, narrow valleys. These cascades feed the myriad of streams and streams that form the lower rivers.

    In the eastern part of the western Caucasus, the calcareous shores are shorter and form relatively short humps. One of these mountains is deeply cut by the Galideszga River. From the top of the canyon, the steep slopes of the mountains can be seen again. Although not made of lime, they are mainly hard sandstones of old volcanic rocks.

    Located in sharp edges, recently covered by impenetrable forests, one of Georgia's industrial centers is the Soviet-era town of Tskhovarchi. In this area, coal has been found in sand and Jurassic rocks.

    East Kulkhis Interstate

    Kulkhis is located along the Surami Mountains, the easternmost branch of the lowland between Georgia. The nature of this area is diverse. To the south of the stepped slopes of the Trialeti Mountains are raised heads. Along its pedestals lies a steep river valley on which the rail line is drawn.
     

    Little Caucasus

    Part of the mountainous region is the small Caucasus stretching along the Georgian border. The area has two separate sections in terms of structure and roughness. The northern part is the folded marginal mountains and the Javakheti volcanic heights. The next section, stretching from the Black Sea to Tbilisi, consists mainly of low Tertiary volcanic rocks. The volcanic highlands are composed of high Tertiary young layers and Quaternary lava flows that form a long plateau with a series of silent volcanic cones and domes.
     

     

    Hydrology

    Rivers

    222px-Confluence_of_the_Aragvi_and_Kura_%28Mtkvari%29_rivers درباره گرجستان
     
    The collision of two rivers Mekvari and Aragvi

    The Surami, Meskhetian and Arsani Mountains divide the Georgian rivers into two basins: the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. Due to heavy rainfall, the rivers of the Black Sea Basin form a denser network and flow more water than eastern Georgia. West Georgia is characterized by a large number of small streams fed by the rains and part of the marshes. These rivers enter the Black Sea directly. In the Mekwari River Basin, there are no such examples of marshy streams, but the rivers have seasonal flows and dry up in summer. In western Georgia, where carbonate rocks have spread, many streams originate from springs or streams emanating from underground karstic holes. In the high-altitude Java lands, there are rivers that feed on lakes and a large amount of groundwater.

    The rivers of Georgia are of great economic importance. According to estimates of hydroelectric sources, Georgia occupies an important place among the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and is ahead of many foreign countries including France, Italy, Spain, Austria, Greece, Portugal, Serbia, Hungary, Germany and Belgium.

    Lakes

    222px-Lisi_Lake درباره گرجستان
     
    Lake Lacey Tbilisi

    The number of lakes in Georgia is small and most of them are small and do not play a role in Georgia's landscape. However, different lakes in the country of origin but has a beautiful shape. Hara has the largest number of lakes Javakheti highlands. Basalt Lake is located in eastern Georgia and is located within the small town of Lisi Lake in Tbilisi. It should be borne in mind that a number of natural lakes, but many artificial lakes were also created in Georgia.

    Refrigerators

     On the Caucasus Central Range in the Georgian territory, there are many refrigerators. This is natural, as the snowfall is at the western end of the mountain range at 2 m high and at the eastern end at 5 m above sea level. Hundreds of mountains in the Greater Caucasus Mountains are above this altitude. Many Georgian glaciers are concentrated on the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus. Many of Georgia's glaciers are quite large. In particular, the number of large glaciers in the Ingorie River Basin reaches about 4 glaciers. The largest of these are Tubery (2 km long), Lexirie (1.5 km long) and Tessany (2 km long). Refrigerators are of significant economic importance. These glaciers feed the Georgian colonies. In summer, the glaciers melt in glaciers, supplying large quantities of water to the Riviera, Inguri, Turk, and other rivers.

    222px-Svaneti%2C_georgia درباره گرجستان

    Swan Refrigerator

    Mineral water

    The South Caucasus, especially in Georgia, is the area of ​​active volcanoes of recent geological eruptions, which is an earthquake-dense area with new tectonic movements. Subterranean forces are now characterized by hot springs and spas that are expelled from many parts of Georgia.

    "Water of life" can be called hot springs and radioactivity "Tskalaltobo". Alkaline-carbon spas are sometimes known as the "bromide" of comfort worldwide. Minji's mineral water is comparable to Matsesta's near Sochi. The alkaline-salt springs of "Syerme", "Lugla", "Zawwara" in "Java" are similar to those of "San Tuk". Finally, Tbilisi's sulfur-alkali springs are very popular.

     

    Soilology

    In the territory of Georgia, a wide range of soils, ranging from gray-brown and semi-desert saline, ie dry steppe soils and temperate temperate forest soils to red and podzoly soils adjacent to orbital and alpine grasslands.

    Despite the significant natural differences between eastern Georgia and western Georgia, the soils of these two areas also differ, especially in lowland mountainous areas. The grassy-mountainous soils of the high volcanic lands of South Georgia have their own characteristics. Here, in the Akhalkalaki Plateau, in the neighborhoods of Thessaly, Damascus and Gomarti, up to 2m high, the mountains of Chernozium are the dominant soils. Slightly higher, in the Javakheti, Trialeti, and Samsara Mountains, these soils are replaced by grassy-mountainous soils. Georgia's grassy-mountainous soils are covered by alpine and semi-alpine grasslands that form the basis of animal husbandry.

     

    Biogeography

    Vegetation

    222px-Georgia%2C_Khevi%2C_Suatisi_Valley_-_Village_Suatisi درباره گرجستان
     
    Matthews

    It is estimated that about 3 species of plants are found in Georgia. The forests have the most important vegetable reserves in Georgia, accounting for about one-third of the country's territory. Vertical zoning is clearly marked with mountainous Georgia. The vegetation of eastern Georgia is different from that of western Georgia. The warm and humid vegetation of West Georgia is abundant and varied.

    The green cover of the Kulkhis suburbs and the pine hills of West Georgia is very rich. Rainforest forests have grown on the marshy soils of Kulkhis. Numerous varieties of oak (Imertian, Iberian, Hartwiss) beech, chestnut, hornbeam and alder are alternately replaced with maple, persimmon, sparrow, tephra, pear, apple and eastern beech.

    Alpine meadows and carpet-like species, with altitudes from 0 to 5 to 5 m above sea level, constitute the dominant vegetation. Here the short plants grow with large and beautiful flowers (yellow gentian, herbaceous, cauliflower, etc.). At the top of the alpine area, the mountains are free of continuous vegetation.

    Animal Life

    222px-CaucasianOvcharka-Julius درباره گرجستان
    Caucasian dog

    There are many animals in Georgia that are unique to a variety of landscapes, from the orbital area to the snow-capped mountains. Here, native animal species, including migratory animals from other areas, are found. In Georgia, altitude zones (from the steppe and humid orbital areas to the alpine areas) are quite distinct in Georgia. In the Greater Caucasus Alpine region, different species of sheep and goats live.

    Birds that nest in the alpine area include snowdrops, hawks, beautiful Caucasian roosters, which live in grasses, and predatory birds such as golden eagles and bearded vultures. There are many fish in the inland waters. The Mekwari River and its tributaries are home to the Caspian Eel, salmon, whitefish, catfish, herring, duck and carp. Mountain streams are full of salmon.

     

    Demographics

    Demographic Characteristics

    333px-Georgian_Wikipedians درباره گرجستان
     
    Georgian wikis

    Georgia had a population of 4.3% in the year 2, of which 4.3% (2%) were men and 2.3% (2%) women. Georgia's population growth rate has been -1.7% since the beginning of the year. According to the year 2 statistics, the birthrate is 2% and the mortality rate is 2%.

    Age and sex composition

    According to statistics from year 1, 2% of the total population of Georgia under the age of 5 years constitutes 2% between 2 and 4 years and 2% over 2 years. Life expectancy in Georgia in 2008 was 5.5 years.
    Urban and rural population

    Georgia's rural population was 2% of the total population in the year. The figure was down to 7% in the year 2, according to the rural population rate. The annual growth rate of the rural population between the ages of 1 and 2 was -4. The urban population of the country in the year 2 was 4.3 tons (1%). This figure was reported to be 4.1.2 tonnes (1%) in year 2.

     

    Education System

    222px-TbilisiState درباره گرجستان
     

    University of Tbilisi

    Georgian constitution to be free schooling up to ninth grade predicted Johannesburg. Also in public universities, students have free education. Georgian schools into Russian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Ossetian and Abkhazian there.

    Due to the changes made in the pre-university period, the total period of schooling has been five years; from first to sixth: Elementary, from seventh to ninth: Basic, from tenth to twelfth: Secondary education . From first to ninth grade is compulsory and free, from the tenth to twelfth, most recently just part of the cost borne by the government. The type of schools has also changed.

     

    In 2004, the literacy rate among adults (15 years and above), was 100% and the country's education index 0. 89 Bvdhast.nsbt women to men in 2001, in terms of elementary, middle and high school, respectively: 95 There were 2, 4, and 5%, respectively.
    Healthcare

    Georgia's public health expenditure accounted for 4.3% of Georgia's GDP, compared with 6% in the second quarter. There have been many state-of-the-art hospitals built in Georgia in recent years.

    Culture

    The dominant culture of Georgia is the culture of the Georgian people, which is an essential element of the Caucasian culture and has in common with other Caucasian cultures. Georgian culture is one of the richest cultures in the world.
     

    Language

    333px-Chavchavadze_1914 درباره گرجستان
    A book by Ilya Chavchavadze on Georgian script and language

    Georgian language the language of the official language of Georgia and Georgia.

    Georgian is one of the Caucasian languages and belongs to the Kartolian family. 14 languages are part of the language that has the alphabet.
     

    the literature

    Georgian literature dates back to 5.5 years ago and came into existence a few centuries BC. One of the oldest authentic Georgian literary works that has survived to the present day is Jacob Tsvetauri, entitled "Shushanik Testimony" (5th Century), a work of art supremely loyal to the idea of ​​patriotism, the 5th-6th century, literary era. It constitutes Georgian. That's when a romantic and romantic story called "Vysramanian", translated by Sargis Temoguli and a collection of stories about the "Amiran Darjanian" by the Bloody Mosque, admirable poems about "Abdul Samimi" by Ivane Shawtli and "Tamariani" by Chakhrooz. .

    Line

    The Georgian script is one of the five writing systems in the world, specifically for writing Georgian and other Kartolian languages.

    This writing system consists of three equivalent alphabets, namely: asymmetric, neural, and anchoric, which are nowadays the only formal and widely used moths.

    The oldest inscription discovered in the Georgian language is written in the first Georgian alphabet, the Asomethauri, dating from the 1st century BC.

    Calligraphy

    300px-Georgian_calligraphy_competition_Otar_Jolia درباره گرجستان
    A kind of Georgian calligraphy

    Georgian calligraphy has centuries of history. Georgian handwritten books from the early centuries are among Georgia's national and cultural treasures. Christianity has played an important role in Georgian literature, and it has been the Georgian Orthodox monks who have preserved Georgian calligraphy and script by copying religious books and writing Georgian history.
     

     

    Art

     Georgian art has been the subject of flourishing architecture, painting and painting since ancient times. These works are of historical value today. In the feudal system, the combination of sculpture, sculpture and painting was a function of architecture and was an integral part of architectural works. Engraving and carving on metal and pottery is one of the oldest arts in Georgia. Past centuries have obliterated the precise date of the birth of these arts, but according to archaeological evidence, the art of carving and pottery dates back to 4,500 years (1). Sculpture, engraving on metals with goldsmithing, has a strong and unbroken bond. The enchanting Georgian enamels, with their own motifs, with bright and stunning colors and with the transparency of their glazes and artificial stones and their colored glass, is the first in the world.

    150px-Martvili درباره گرجستان

    The Gospel

    Georgian masters of visual arts have a great passion for artistic activity, they create genuine and inspiring works on subjects of our age. Spring and Autumn exhibitions of paintings throughout Georgia in the Paintings Gallery have become a traditional ritual. The participation of Georgian painters in paintings exhibitions at home and abroad, such as Belgium, Italy, Great Britain, the United States, etc. has always been a great success.

    the cinema

    Georgian Cinema The development and evolution of the field of filmmaking and filmmaking is an important success for Georgian national culture. There are dozens of art, cartoon, science, public, documentary, and more films made in Georgia every year. A number of Georgia-made films have won prizes and diplomas at international festivals and throughout the republics. The film "Father of the Soldier" was a huge success at the 14th Moscow International Film Festival. Films such as "Oshba", "Alazani Plain", and "On the Pamir Heights" were highly acclaimed at international festivals and were awarded diplomas of honor. The Center for the Active and Creative Life of Cinema Art Workers is the Union of Filmmakers.

    Theater

    From the very beginning, Georgian theater has been a step in the direction of realism. Based on national plays written by stupid writers like David Koldinshvili, Zorabi Antonov, Shalova Dadiani and others, at the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a strong theatrical movement and movement emerged, with a large group of artist actors at the helm. They were. In the 6th year a dramatic theater was founded, called Shota Rustaveli. In the 6th year, a dramatic theater called K. Marjanishvili was created and began his artistic career. Training and training and preparing actors and directors and theater directors at the Theater Institute. A state-of-the-art theater museum has been established in Georgia. Gribadov's Tbilisi Theater aids good traditions in Georgian theater cultures, Georgian theater has enjoyed a prominent place among the theatrical cultures of the former Soviet republics, and Georgian theaters and their outstanding work outside the Georgian borders are also popular. .

    موسیقی

    Georgian music is one of the richest and most ancient music in the world. Georgian songs are associated with medieval church songs. According to sources, there were two types of acoustic music in Byzantium and Georgia. One of them was Greek and mono sound and the other was Georgian with three degrees of sound. The most notable songwriters are St. Gregory of Khanzta and Mikhail Mudrakili, and Ivana Mitbari in the tenth century.

    Dance

    Georgian dance is one of the traditional dances of the Caucasian region. It is a series of folk dances of Georgian people that was passed down from generation to generation and developed in this process.

    300px-Georgian_dance_3 درباره گرجستان
     Georgian Dance

         Kartoli Dance
         Dance Dance
         Khore dance
         Dance Charvly
         Dance Partsa
         Dance Qazbgvry
         Dance Khnjlvry
         Dance Khevsuruli
         Dance Mtyvlvry
         Dance Khvnga
         Simdi Dance
         Dance Kintouri
         Samaya Dance
         State Dance
         Swanuri Dance

     

    people

    Race and Ethnicity

     

    The Georgians are Georgia's largest ethnic group and are scattered throughout the country and have centralized power. Georgian Azerbaijanis are also considered to be the largest ethnic minority of Georgia according to the latest ethnic census of the Georgian government.

    According to the latest count of ethnicity by the Georgian government in year 2: Georgians: 1.2%, Azerbaijanis: 1.2%, Armenians: 5.1%, Russians: 5.1%, Asians: 5.1% and There were also other ethnicities.

    "The race of the Georgian people is the purest and most original of the Oriental races and the purest of races," says Shardin, a prominent French tourist who has described Georgia in his travelogue.

    جمعیت گرجستان بر پایه اقوام ۱۹۲۶–۲۰۰۲
    گروه
    قومی
    آمار ۱۹۲۶ آمار ۱۹۳۹ آمار ۱۹۵۹ آمار ۱۹۷۰ آمار ۱۹۷۹ آمار ۱۹۸۹ آمار ۲۰۰۲
      رتبه % تعداد % تعداد % تعداد % تعداد % تعداد % تعداد
    گرجی‌ها ۱٬۷۸۸٬۱۸۶ ۶۶٫۸ ۲٬۱۷۳٬۹۲۲ ۶۱٫۴ ۲٬۶۰۰٬۵۸۸ ۶۴٫۳ ۳٬۱۳۰٬۷۴۱ ۶۶٫۸ ۳٬۴۳۳٬۰۱۱ ۶۸٫۸ ۳٬۷۸۷٬۳۹۳ ۷۰٫۷ ۵٬۶۶۱٬۱۷۳ ۸۳٫۸
    آذربایجانی ۱۳۷٬۹۲۱ ۵٫۲ ۱۸۸٬۰۵۸ ۵٫۳ ۱۵۳٬۶۰۰ ۳٫۸ ۲۱۷٬۷۵۸ ۴٫۶ ۲۵۵٬۶۷۸ ۵٫۱ ۳۰۷٬۵۵۶ ۵٫۷ ۲۸۴٬۷۶۱ ۶٫۵
    ارمنی‌ها ۳۰۷٬۰۱۸ ۱۱٫۵ ۴۱۵٬۰۱۳ ۱۱٫۷ ۴۴۲٬۹۱۶ ۱۱٫۰ ۴۵۲٬۳۰۹ ۹٫۷ ۴۴۸٬۰۰۰ ۹٫۰ ۴۳۷٬۲۱۱ ۸٫۱ ۲۴۸٬۹۲۹ ۵٫۷
    روس‌ها ۹۶٬۰۸۵ ۳٫۶ ۳۰۸٬۶۸۴ ۸٫۷ ۴۰۷٬۸۸۶ ۱۰٫۱ ۳۹۶٬۶۹۴ ۸٫۵ ۳۷۱٬۶۰۸ ۷٫۴ ۳۴۱٬۱۷۲ ۶٫۳ ۶۷٬۶۷۱ ۱٫۵
    آسی‌ها ۱۱۳٬۲۹۸ ۴٫۲ ۱۴۷٬۶۷۷ ۴٫۲ ۱۴۱٬۱۷۸ ۳٫۵ ۱۵۰٬۱۸۵ ۳٫۲ ۱۶۰٬۴۹۷ ۳٫۲ ۱۶۴٬۰۵۵ ۳٫۰ ۳۸٬۰۲۸ ۰٫۹
    ایزدیان ۲٬۲۶۲ ۰٫۱ ۱۲٬۹۱۵ ۰٫۴ ۱۶٬۲۱۲ ۰٫۴ ۲۰٬۶۹۰ ۰٫۴ ۲۵٬۶۸۸ ۰٫۵ ۳۳٬۳۳۱ ۰٫۶ ۱۸٬۳۲۹ ۰٫۴
    کردها ۷٬۹۵۵ ۰٫۳ ۲٬۵۱۴ ۰٫۱
    یونانی‌ها ۵۴٬۰۵۱ ۲٫۰ ۸۴٬۶۳۶ ۲٫۴ ۷۲٬۹۳۸ ۱٫۸ ۸۹٬۲۴۶ ۱٫۹ ۹۵٬۱۰۵ ۱٫۹ ۱۰۰٬۳۲۴ ۱٫۹ ۱۵٬۱۶۶ ۰٫۳
    اوکراینی‌ها ۱۴٬۳۵۶ ۰٫۵ ۴۵٬۵۹۵ ۱٫۳ ۵۲٬۲۳۶ ۱٫۳ ۴۹٬۶۲۲ ۱٫۱ ۴۵٬۰۳۶ ۰٫۹ ۵۲٬۴۴۳ ۱٫۰ ۷٬۰۳۹ ۰٫۲
    آبخازها ۵۶٬۸۴۷ ۲٫۱ ۵۷٬۸۰۵ ۱٫۶ ۶۲٬۸۷۸ ۱٫۶ ۷۹٬۴۴۹ ۱٫۷ ۸۵٬۲۸۵ ۱٫۷ ۹۵٬۸۵۳ ۱٫۸ ۳٬۵۲۷ ۰٫۱
    آشوریان ۲٬۹۰۴ ۰٫۱ ۴٬۷۰۷ ۰٫۱ ۵٬۰۰۵ ۰٫۱ ۵٬۶۱۷ ۰٫۱ ۵٬۲۸۶ ۰٫۱ ۶٬۲۰۶ ۰٫۱ ۳٬۲۹۹ ۰٫۱
    یهودیان ۳۰٬۳۸۹ ۱٫۱ ۴۲٬۳۰۰ ۱٫۲ ۵۱٬۵۸۲ ۱٫۳ ۵۵٬۳۸۲ ۱٫۲ ۲۸٬۲۹۸ ۰٫۶ ۲۴٬۷۹۵ ۰٫۵ ۲٬۳۳۳ ۰٫۱
    دیگر اقوام ۶۵٬۹۶۱ ۲٫۵ ۵۸٬۷۱۱ ۱٫۷ ۳۷٬۰۱۵ ۰٫۹ ۳۸٬۶۶۵ ۰٫۸ ۳۹٬۶۹۰ ۰٫۸ ۵۰٬۵۰۲ ۰٫۹ ۱۸٬۷۶۶ ۰٫۵
    مجموع ۲٬۶۷۷٬۲۳۳ ۳٬۵۴۰٬۰۲۳ ۴٬۰۴۴٬۰۴۵ ۴٬۶۸۶٬۳۵۸ ۴٬۹۹۳٬۱۸۲ ۵٬۴۰۰٬۸۴۱ ۷٬۱۴۲٬۰۰۰
     

    Religious

    According to statistics from 2002, the majority of the Georgian people, (approximately 70%), Christian and follower of the Georgian Orthodox Church. After Georgian orthodoxy, Islam in Georgia is regarded as the country's largest religious minority. Georgian Azerbaijanis Muslim population and other ethnic groups in the country, including Ajaria form. Russians residing in Georgia are other minorities in the country that make up the Russian Orthodox population; they also include Apostolic Armenians and Protestant Germans.
     
    Economy

    Georgia was one of the richest former Soviet republics because of privileges such as access to open water, favorable weather, advanced agriculture, mines, industry and tourism; and its people enjoyed a high standard of living. But after the collapse of the USSR in the year 514, civil wars raged from 1 to 5, making the Georgian economy as a newly independent country in severe crisis. But in recent years, Georgia has enjoyed an advanced and modern economy relative to its surrounding countries and to its counterparts, and there has been significant growth in the Georgian economy.
     

    Agriculture

    222px-001_georgia_tusheti-061 درباره گرجستان
    Toast

    Prior to the year 9, Georgia exported a large volume of food and agricultural products and was a major supplier of vegetables, fruit, tea, liquor and citrus to other Soviet republics. After Georgia's independence, traditional markets were lost and overall production levels declined due to political and economic problems. But soon the country's agricultural market flourished and exported a lot. There are also many vineyards in eastern and southeastern Georgia and one of the best wines in the world. There are many international wineries in Georgia.

    Cultivation of citrus and tea is flourishing in the adjacent humid orbit region. Cultivation of crops, industrial crops, potatoes, vegetables and forage crops is cultivated in the country. Georgia is the birthplace of wine in the world and Georgians are the inventors of wine and Georgians are registered under the name of Georgians in UNESCO.
     

    Industry

    The industry is the main branch of the Georgian economy and plays a large role in the economic development of the country. Georgia's industries were closely linked to the economies of other Soviet republics and were heavily dependent on Russia and other Soviet republics for supply of raw materials, energy and spare parts, and therefore suffered considerable losses in its post-independence years. By the year 9, almost one-third of Georgian factories had ceased production. But after a while the Georgian industry grew and prospered, and many investors came to Georgia to build the plant. Huawei and Sony phones for Europe are made in Georgia.

    Of Georgia's industrial products, the food industry accounts for 2.7%, the light industry 4.4%, for the machinery and steel industry accounts for 1.5%.

    There are also industrial manufacturing companies in the country. Manufacture of glass and crystal containers, ceramic artifacts, metalworking machinery and military industries are other areas of Georgian industrial activity.

    In Georgia, light industry has expanded widely. In Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Batumi, Sukhumi and some other cities, consumer goods companies such as woolen, silk and cotton, clothing, footwear, knitwear and knitwear are employed. Food industry establishments include tea mills, wine making, canned and compote production, perfume and cologne, tobacco, pastry, meat, milk and many more.

    mines

    222px-Georgia-Tschiatura-W درباره گرجستان
     
    View of Chiatura City

    Georgia has numerous mines, the most important of which are coal, manganese, refractory soil, barite ferrous, agate, marble, iron ore, arsenic, molybdenum, tungsten and mercury. Despite significant mines in Georgia, due to various reasons, such as the lack of technology and financial resources, it was not possible to fully identify and exploit these mines during the Soviet Union.

    The world's largest manganese mine is located in Georgia. The mine, located near the town of Chiatura near the port of Poti, is 2 square kilometers and its manganese reserves are estimated at 5 million tons.

    Georgia produced 8,000 tons of coal, 6,000 tons of copper, 6,000 tons of cement, 2kg of gold and 2kg of silver.

    Tourism

    Tourism is one of the most important service sectors of Georgia, which plays an important role in the country's economy. This important part of the pre-independence period was well-flourished. In the year 5, 2.9% entered Georgia, of which 1.1% were tourists, generating $ 1.2 billion in revenue. Georgia is a tourist country with many touristy cities including Kutaisi, Zugdidi, Batumi, Sighnaghi, Bourjomi, Tbilisi, Poti, Sukhumi and Rural World and the birthplace of the world wine (in Kakheti Province).

    Services

    vThe Georgian economy is largely dependent on the service sector, and its role in the economic structure of Georgia has gradually increased. One of the important examples of this sector is tourism, which plays an important role in the service sector.
     
    Energy [edit]

    In terms of hydropower production, Georgia has a significant place among the CIS and European countries. It is ahead of many European countries in terms of hydropower generation. Currently, Georgia's annual electricity demand is about 2 billion kWh, all of which is generated on Georgian soil. Georgia also supplies additional electricity to neighboring countries such as Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkey.

    Georgia is a country with plenty of water and wind that it uses extensively to generate electricity. Ingorie Dam Georgia's largest dam, as well as the world's third-largest dam, as well as wind power plants in the north of the country generate huge amounts of electricity annually. In terms of oil and gas resources, there are about 3 oil fields discovered in Georgia. Of these discovered oil fields, 7,000 barrels of oil and 3.5 million cubic meters of gas are extracted annually.

    Oil

    300px-Baku_pipelines.svg درباره گرجستان
     
    Oil Pipelines

    Generally in the north, center and east of the country oil resources have been discovered by western oil companies in the Rostov region in recent geological exploration of larger oil and gas resources.

    There are three major oil companies operating in Georgia: Ninotsminda in the Ninotsminda region, Larisse Oil Company in the Samgrove region, and Georgian State Oil Company named Georgian Oil Company. [2]

    Available and Planned Routes for Energy Resources:

     

    • Baku-Supsa pipeline: This pipeline connecting Baku in the Republic of Azerbaijan to Supsa in the Black Sea is active. The pipeline directs about 2 barrels of oil to tankers in the Supsa coastal water
    • Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline: Agreement signed and approved by Georgia, Azerbaijan and Turkey.
    • Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline: It is a state-of-the-art pipeline agreement in progress between Georgia, Azerbaijan and Turkey.
     

    Gas

    Natural gas in Georgia covers almost all sectors of industry and energy, agriculture and all major cities and towns.

    Georgia's natural gas production was estimated at 2 million cubic meters in year 5. Exports and imports of gas are estimated at 1.2 billion cubic meters. Recently, huge gas reserves have been found in southeastern and northwestern Georgia in the past year, which researchers say could supply the entire continent of Europe and Georgia itself with gas for up to two years. it takes time. Currently, these resources are being exploited by the Georgian National Gas Company with the assistance of a Swedish company.

    Electricity

    222px-Enguridam درباره گرجستان
    Ingorie Dam

    According to estimates of hydroelectric sources, Georgia occupies an important place among the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and is ahead of many foreign countries, including France, Italy, Spain, Austria, Greece, Portugal and Serbia. Georgia's existing electricity system is connected to two hydroelectric power plants and three thermal power plants. The largest hydroelectric power plant under construction is the Inguri Power Plant, with power generation capacity increasing from 1 to 2 MW to 2 MW. The Inguri Dam is the third largest and largest dam in the world.

    The new hydroelectric power plants under construction in Georgia are 2 MW, Janiti 2 MW, Khadi 2 MW, and Kakhi 1.5 MW

    coal

    There are numerous coal mines in Georgia. Takhvarchali mine with 2 million tons of coal and 2 million tons of coal reserves are the most important. Coal production in Georgia in the year 2 was 2 tons. The country ranks 5th in the world in terms of hard coal production from 1 to 5 years.
     
    Transportation

     

    roads

    All districts and administrative centers of Georgia, including many villages, are connected by a network of highways and roads that cover the whole country. Overall, Georgia's asphalted roads are about 4km long, with plans to expand roads, especially highways, including the construction of a six-lane Black Sea port of Tbilisi to Tbilisi and from Abkhazia to the Azerbaijani border.
     
     
    rail

    The Georgian Railway on the Tbilisi-Samtredia route enables the connection of the three Caucasian states and Russia via the Black Sea coast to Shamal via Abkhazia. The shorter routes within Georgia connect most of the country's cities. Compared to neighboring countries, its traction power is high because most locomotives and wagons are manufactured there.
     

    air Lines

    222px-Airzena_Boeing_737-500_Pichugin درباره گرجستان
     
    Georgian Airlines

    Georgia has a state-of-the-art domestic and foreign air transport system; it uses the latest equipment and versions of the industry's air tools and equipment. There are three airports in Georgia that can be used for civilian aircraft. Of these, Tbilisi, Batumi and Sukhumi and Putti airports are of particular importance. Of these, 2 airports are international and 2 domestic. There are also many military airports in Georgia. Tbilisi Airlines is currently operating permanently for the purposes of Istanbul, Baku, Yerevan, Dubai, Sukhumi, Nalchik, Mineralni Vedi, Tashkent, Kiev and Moscow, Tehran, Berlin, Paris, Warsaw and Minsk.
     

    Ports and Shipping

    The maritime transport destination for Georgia became clear when the country's railroad northbound through Abkhazia. Black Sea ports play a role not only in Georgia but also in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Porti is reportedly one of the largest ports on the Black Sea since it was part of the Terrassica corridor. The port of Poti is reported to have totaled 5 million tonnes in the year 2, which is a 4.1% annual increase. Port Poti is one of the most important industrial ports of the Black Sea and one of the most important ports in the world; millions of tons of goods are routed and exported or imported from this port every day.
     

     

    Foreign Trade

    Although in recent years due to political instability and consequently lack of security for long-term investment and high risk-taking in the country, there has been little tendency by the public sector and to some extent by the private sector to enter the Georgian market, but in recent decades Given the country's relatively favorable new conditions, which have partially reduced the range of crises, there has been a degree of security and stability. These relations have been developing in all fields and the volume of trade exchanges with the rest of the world has increased.
     


    Export and Import

    In the second year, imports of goods and services accounted for 5% of GDP and exports of goods and services accounted for 5% of GDP. Its exports were mainly to Russia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Bulgaria, Armenia and Ukraine, Belarus, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Serbia, Uzbekistan and Norway. Georgian imports are mainly from Russia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Germany, the US and Turkmenistan.
     

     

    Politics

    Following Georgia's independence in 2007, former Soviet Foreign Minister Edward Shevardnadze assumed power as Georgia's first president. Immediately after Georgia's independence, disputes between Russia and Georgia over sovereign republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia arose. Russia did not allow Georgia to exercise its sovereignty over the two territories. Georgia's weakness and its proximity to the current government - especially Shevardnadze - to Russia, led the Georgian government to compromise with the Russian government. Georgia also agreed not to oppose the presence of Russian troops in the two regions.

    After the Rose Revolution in 2008 in Georgia, which was supported by the United States and led to the overthrow of Mikheil Saakashvili's westernist government, the political situation in Georgia changed. The new Georgian government pursued a policy of distance from Russia and proximity to the West (especially the US). Georgia also sought membership in the European Union and NATO.

    In August 2008, at the same time as the Summer Olympics, the South Ossetian War of the Year took place. In this war, the Georgian army invaded the area to occupy South Ossetia, but the fierce Russian reaction forced the Georgian army to withdraw. Russia has now recognized the independence of the two regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and is effectively in control of them with its troops in the two regions. According to Russian officials: This showed Georgia how to stretch its legs from its helmet. Some countries condemned the move and put pressure on Russia. Experts have predicted that Russia will soon be forced to back down. But after the clashes in Karabakh, it was the Westerners who retreated. After the crisis in Ukraine, two regions were separated from Ukraine and became under Russian control. Russia now controls about 5 autonomous regions around the world, and is projected to reach 5 by the end of the current world conflict by 2 times, 2 times more than the current British colonies.
    Map of Georgia

    555px-Un-georgia درباره گرجستان
    Map of Georgia
  • Georgia at a glance (About Georgia)


    General Studies on Georgia


    1.1 Geography of Georgia

    Georgia is located in the South Caucasus with the local name "Sakartolo" and covers an area of ​​69,700 square kilometers. The Georgian capital is Tbilisi and the country is divided into 9 districts (Gori, Emereti, Kakheti, Kumo Kartli, Metskheta-Matiani, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kumo Cianti), 65 districts, 5 independent towns of the regions (minus Abkhazia and Tskhinvali). The major cities by population are given in Table 1.

    It is bounded on the north by Russia, on the east by the Republic of Azerbaijan, on the south by Armenia and Turkey, and on the west by the Black Sea. Much of the land is rugged and mountainous, with the highest point being the 5069-meter-high Shakara Mountain.

    Table 1 Important Cities of Georgia by Population *

    Category City Name

    Name of the area

    population

    1

    Tbilisi Tbilisi

    700 158 1

    2

    Kutaisi Imereti

    000 507

    3

    Rustavi Kvemo Kartli

    300 432

    4

    Batumi Adjara

    300 346

    5

    Zugdidi + Abkhazian immigrants Samegreto-Zemo Svaneti

    800 320

    6

    Telavi Kakheti

    700 314

    7

    Gori Shida Kartli

    300 259

    8

    Tori Samtskhe-Javakheti

    900 155

    9

    Ozurgeti Guria  110 500

    10

    Mtsketa Mtsketa-Mtianeti 200 93

     

    Georgia at a glance (About Georgia)

    1.2 - Social status and anthropology

     
    The following are remarkable about the culture and social customs of the Georgian people:

        Georgian culture has been influenced by all of these cultures due to numerous wars and hostilities by powerful regional governments, including Russia, Iran, Rome and Ottoman Empire.
        About 75% of Georgians are Orthodox Christian, 11% are Muslim, 8% are Armenian and 6% are other extremists. As seen in social and business venues, the people of the country adhere to religious practices.
        The second most common language in Georgia is Russian. Almost all people are able to speak Russian.
        Individuals who are able to speak English in Georgia are more limited to business owners and to a select group of educated people. In recent years, the replacement of English instead of Russian has accelerated, but don't expect to be able to use English in offices, on the street (and sometimes even in hotels).
        It is possible to use Turkish (Azerbaijani) and Armenian languages ​​depending on the case but is not widespread.
        The literacy rate in Georgia is 99%.
        The author's experiences show that Georgians are less sensitive to time than most southern CIS countries.
        In terms of adherence to the agreements, Georgians were generally known for adhering to their agreements and contracts, but it seems unlikely in recent years that adherence to contractual obligations and the ability to abide by the agreements will be reduced.
        Georgians are open-minded in their trade negotiations, yet warm and emotional. They simply express their negative or positive attitude towards a proposal or behavior. This behavior should not be viewed as their hostile position in the negotiations.

     

    1.3 Ease of Business in Georgia


    Deciding to enter any new market as an investor requires knowledge of certain indicators. One of these indicators is "ease of doing business". This index is calculated by studying laws and regulations, by expert experts including government executives, lawyers, management consultants, accountants and experts from 183 economies across the world, who generally play the role of legislator and regulator.

    The Business Ease Index is calculated by examining regulations that directly affect business activity rather than general conditions such as proximity to large markets, infrastructure quality, inflation, or crime rates. The rankings of each country's business ease index are derived from the average of the following 10 sub-indices:


    Starting or Starting a Business (Procedures, Time, Cost and Minimum Capital to Start a Business),
    Getting a construction permit (procedures, duration, and cost of building a warehouse),
    Worker Recruitment (Difficulty of Employment, Flexibility of Working Hours, Difficulty of Labor Redundancy Index [Ease of Dismissal], Difficulty of Employment Index, Dismissal Costs)
    Asset registration (procedures, timing and cost of commercial property registration),
    Investment protection (indicators related to the scope of business information disclosure, the scope of manager's legal responsibility and the ease of litigation of shareholders),
    Tax payment (variety of taxes payable, hours spent per year adjusting tax return and total tax payable as a share of gross profit),
    Foreign trade (number of documents, cost and time required for export or import),
    Contract (Procedures, Time and Cost of Contract),
    Liquidation of a business (Recovery rate index as a function of time, cost, and other factors such as borrowing rate and probability of business standing)


    For example, according to the Business Activity Report 2010, Australia ranks third after New Zealand and Canada in the Business Startup Index. In Australia, 2 procedures are needed to start a business that takes an average of 2 days to complete. Its administrative cost is 0.8% of GDP per capita. There is no limit to minimum investment. Conversely, in Guinea-Bissau, which has the worst (183 out of 183) business environment in terms of the same index, the formalities for establishing a business take 213 days. Its administrative cost is 323% of gross national income, and the minimum capital required to establish a business is 1006.6% of gross national income.

    Although the appearance of lower and simpler rules often means higher rank, this is not always the case. Protecting the rights of lenders and investors, for example, requires more regulation and enforcement.

    A look at Georgia shows that the index has been improving in recent years. We have looked at the index from two angles: the trend of Georgia's ease of doing business over the last 5 years, and the comparison between different countries in the world in 2012. The ratings of these ratings vary slightly by different institutions. For example, the Business Activity Index (DBI) announced by Business Environment Snapshots for Georgia in 2011 was 12 and the ranking posted by Doing Business website was 17. Both of these websites are affiliated in some way with the World Bank (WB) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC). The reason for this difference is the inclusion or omission of some sub-indicators (eg, hiring a worker and getting a power outlet). Table 2 shows the ratings of Georgia's ease of doing busines

     

    Table 2 Ratings of Georgia Business Ease of Rating

    Rating index Business Activity Rank 2012 Business Activity Rating 2011 Change rank
    Business Establishment

    7

    8

    1

    Getting a construction license

    4

    6

    2

    Getting a Power Branch

    89

    91

    2

    Land Registry

    1

    2

    2

    Get a loan

    8

    21

    13

    Investor support

    17

    21

    4

    paying tax

    42

    62

    20

    Foreign trade

    54

    34

    20-

    Contract

    41

    40

    1-

    Fixing the financial shortage

    109

    111

    2

     

    See Table 3 to get a measure of business climate indicators in Georgia and other economies.

     

    Table 3 Comparison of Some Indicators of Georgia Business Ease with Average of Regional Economies

    Index

    OECD

    Eastern Europe and Central Asia Georgia
    Procedures (number)

    5

    6

    2

    Duration (days)

    12

    16

    2

    Cost (% of income per capita)

    7/4

    3/8

    3/4

    Minimum paid up capital (% of income per capita)

    1/14

    10

    0

    Table 4 Indicators of Business Ease in Georgia

    Row procedure

    Duration of execution

    Related costs

    1

    Paying the registration fee at the Entrepreneurship Registration Office and getting a government registration and tax number and tax registration 1 day GEL 100

    (Registrar) Or

    GEL 200

    (Quick registration) +

    + GEL 1

    (Banking fees)

    2

    Opening a bank account day 1 no fee

     

    1.4 Georgia's political space

    Georgia's independence from the Soviet Union coincided with the start of disputes with Abkhazia and Ossetia. These wars ended with foreign intervention in the year 94, but it is natural that post-war conditions and economics could open the door to economic corruption. This led to the victory of the Rose Revolution in 2003 with the slogan of restoring transversal integrity, reducing corruption and improving the economic situation. In parallel with the victory of this revolution, international credit organizations such as the IMF, the World Bank and the Eastern European Development Bank came to Georgia and improved the economic situation there relatively. From this period onwards, there were numerous political trends in Georgia. It should not be forgotten that most of the country's financial resources are also under the influence of politically influential.

     1.5 Legal space in Georgia


    In Georgia, as in other countries that are recovering from war and transitioning from a war economy to a stable economy, the legal environment for economic activity is mixed with change, trial and error. But as the years of war go by, the stability of the laws will gradually dominate Georgia's economic climate. It should not be forgotten that the laws governing the economic activity of foreign nationals in different countries are subject to the economic status of that country. Thus, in countries that are rich and rich due to their mineral resources, energy resources and other natural resources, the law of investment by providing tax and customs rebates as well as by releasing the foreign party to transfer their profits abroad, To encourage investment in their home country and to prevent a complete transfer of ownership of immovable property by a foreign investor. In rich countries, they also generally impede the transfer of all legal entity shares to foreign nationals, such that there is always an individual or individuals of the nationality of the investee country on the board of directors of the investor's legal personality. In poor countries, the mechanisms are the opposite, as taxes and other taxes are important sources of government revenue and so the government cannot afford to ignore them. In simpler terms, the government provides legal space for transferring 100% ownership to a foreign investor to encourage a foreign investor, and even transfers the plot of land without a local partner in the name of the investor, but does not provide much tax deductions to the foreign investor. . Although Georgia is practically classified as a second group, over the past two years the Georgian government has tried to add some tax deductions to its attractions to investors, the results of which are actually visible.

        After transferring 100% of the project to a foreign investor, it is also permissible to allow the definitive transfer of all commercial, residential, and sports land to a real foreign legal investor. At the same time, the law also permits the transfer of agricultural land to Georgian legal entities whose 100% shareholders are aliens.
        A foreign investor can even buy or establish monetary-credit institutions such as banks,
        Complete transfer of investment income abroad is free,
        Notwithstanding this immovable property transfer tax, the income tax and the value added tax shall be levied from the foreign investor and local nationals in the same manner and manner except in the Free Trade Areas and Public Warehouses, which shall be explained further in this leaflet.

    Georgia's important rules in terms of space analysis for the issuance of engineering and contracting services are as follows:

        Investment Status Development Act,
        Customs law,
        The law of free zones,
        Bank Law and Insurance, and
        tax laws.

    2 access

    Exporters of technical and engineering services and contractors, by their type and nature of activity, are required to be in direct contact with the target market and to dispatch on-site, in addition to personal, occasional, on-site alternatives, managers, experts, inspectors and supervisors. . Therefore, "access" to such technical and engineering services as well as to investment finds such an important position that it can (even in some cases) overshadow the other elements of market study alone.

     

    2.1 Ground Access


    Due to the enormous importance of land transport in providing the necessary materials for investment as well as the export of technical and engineering services, land access surveillance is of paramount importance. Georgia and Iran do not have a common land border and therefore must be accessed through one The countries that share both Iran and Georgia traveled there. The closest route between the three countries (Turkey, Azerbaijan and Armenia) is via the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, but due to the need for a visa to cross the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan (as well as the Republic of Armenia) on the one hand and no need for a visa to pass through Turkish soil currently transports most of the land freight as well as road travelers via the Turkish route. This corridor itself has 2 paths. Closer to Ardahan Damal Road after crossing Bazargan border and crossing Doghobazid cities, Igdir, Kars, Ardahan, Hanak, Damal, Pusov, Gumush Kawak, Interbashi Amin Bahi, Wali (Damal Yulo, Blue Line) We will reach the "Turk Gazo" between Georgia and Turkey. The name of the border crossing on the Georgian side is "Vale (or Vale)". The distance from Bazargan border to Turku Gazo border is 390 km. The above road, especially after Ardahan, is under repair and under construction at some point. It is more than 250 kilometers from the Chahar Band Road, but near the Georgian border, mountainous and impassable. On the other hand, it should be remembered that this route (especially after Ardahan) is extremely poor on road signs and other safety factors such as Garderel and New Jersey and is therefore not recommended in the winter season. And we will reach the towns of Akhalchikha, Bourjoum, Khashuri and Gori, which is also mountainous in terms of traffic, but much safer in terms of traffic and guard traffic and New Jersey than the Turkish route.

    This route is long for traveling to Black Sea ports (Batumi and Puti) and is not economical given the high gasoline prices in Turkey and Georgia. Therefore, it is advisable for land travel as well as land transport to (or from) the above ports in Georgia after "Kars" to Shavushat, Artvin, Borchka, Hupa, Kamal Pasha, Batak (Red Stripe), and continue after crossing. He left the Sarpi border in Georgia to the above ports (Figure 1 map). He points out that according to the bus drivers, the Tbilisi route through the Vale border had no insurance coverage for the buses and the buses were always through the Sarpi border (the second land route in this report)

     

    Figure 1 Route of Bazargan, Doogobazid, Aqdir, Kars, Ardahan, Shawshat, Artvin, Borchka, Hupa, Kamal Pasha, Batangi (Red Stripe), and Bazargan, Doogobazizid, Aeghdir, Kars, Binzak, Hanumak, Hanumak, Hanak Amin Bahi, Wali (blue marker)

     

    They travel. However, objective observations indicate that the export of Iranian goods to Tbilisi mainly transits the Vale border. For those traveling to Georgia from Ardebil, Gilan or other northern provinces, the best route can be the rail route through the Republic of Azerbaijan. At the time of this report, there were not a few people traveling to Georgia via land.


    2.2 Telecommunications and Internet

    The use of telecommunications facilities has become one of the most pressing needs of human societies and has a vital place in business. Therefore, having real and objective information about the target market telecommunication facilities has a great part to accelerate the exchange of information and thus the success of the business flows. Accordingly, we needed to provide a brief description of Georgia's telecommunications facilities.
    2.2.1 Fixed telephone network

    The fixed telephone network in Georgia is well-known, but objective observations suggest that people prefer to use cell phones. On the other hand, all government offices and most private offices are equipped with a fax machine, but due to the limitations of the system such as higher cost and lower security, e-mail is preferred over fax.
    2.2.2 Mobile network

    There are several mobile phone operators in Georgia that each have advantages and disadvantages, such that even native people usually have two or even three subscriptions from different operators in order to take full advantage of them. In this section, three major operators are presented and a brief description of the advantages and disadvantages of each from the perspective of an Iranian economic activist:

    1. Online: It is one of the famous operators which is very popular due to the low tariffs, contact with Iran and also the ease of contact with Iranian activists residing in Georgia. But because of the lack of 3G system it cannot be used for data transfer, internet or GPS. Also, this operator is not roaming in Iran and therefore, those wishing to control their bank account in Georgia cannot receive SMS of their banking transactions in Georgia.

    2. Magti: One of the oldest mobile phone operators in Georgia. The external call tariff of this operator is more expensive than "Offline" but since it is the only roaming operator in Iran, all Iranian economic operators who have accounts in Georgia and are willing to receive remittance messages as well as those who alternate in Iran and Georgia reside, usually using this operator.

    3. Geocell: It is the most expensive operator in terms of tariffs but due to its wide coverage network, 3G system and many other locales are very popular. So when getting advice on buying a cell phone line, Geocell is one of the locals' suggestions.

    2.2.3 Internet

    In Georgia, the Internet has a significant influence on people's daily lives. Almost all rental homes with water, electricity and gas must have high speed internet, even though they do not have a landline. It is possible to subscribe to multiple ISPs in most major cities with wireless and wireless internet access. The author's research suggests that there is little difference between the price, speed, and quality of different IPS services. Some of the public services are currently being provided over the Internet, and the government intends to develop them. For example, all documents filed in notaries, such as legal representation, transfer documents, etc., can all be intercepted through the Internet. The official suffix for Georgia is ge.

    3 Economic Studies


    3.1 Georgia's credit risk assessment from the perspective of international organizations

    To have a good prognosis of Georgia's credit risk environment, it needs to be queried from several sources. The rules are the best references to export guarantee agencies that integrate

    Country risk analysis institutions such as Standard & Poor's, Fitch's and Modi's provide detailed information along with other information and components. Georgia's credit risk has been Ba2.

     
    3.2 Georgian national currency equals US dollar

    The Georgian currency is called the Lari. At the time of this report, the US dollar is approximately $ 2.60.

     

     

     
    3.3 State of Georgia's Gold and Foreign Currency Reserves

    Georgia's foreign currency and gold reserves totaled $ 3.317 billion in 2013.

    3.4 Georgia's Total Import and Export of Goods and Services

      Georgia's total exports of goods in 2018 amounted to $ 3362.1 million, while imports amounted to $ 9122.3 million.

     


    3.5 Statistical survey of Georgia's import of technical and engineering services

    Given that there is no comprehensive system such as HS in the international trade of technical and engineering services, precise extraction of engineering and technical services cannot be imagined. EBOPS is the most reliable statistical classification engineer for technical and engineering services as well as investment that can determine the minimum amount of civil engineering services that can benefit from project financing information. Given that a significant portion of Georgia's large projects are funded by the World Bank and the Eastern European Development Bank, the statistics presented in the diagram below can be an index of service import statistics for large projects, and certainly service import statistics for small and medium-sized projects cannot be provided. Searched the following calculations. So the actual statistics will be much higher than the figures shown below (Reference: ITC World Trade Center).

     

    Another way is to obtain a more accurate picture of the market for technical, engineering, project, and investment "Investigation of Goods Supervisors" such as cement using econometric estimates. For this purpose two cement and electrical conductors were examined and it was found that:

        Georgia imported $ 534 million worth of cement from Turkey and Italy in 2010, up 10% from a year earlier.
        Georgia imported $ 2188 million worth of "air conductors" from Turkey, the Czech Republic, Ukraine and Belarus in 2010, a 16% increase from the previous year (ITC reference).

    The result is that technical and engineering services purchasing statistics as well as commodity-based goods are showing an acceptable trend. Alongside these positive data on creating opportunities for the technical and engineering services market, there are also warning points that are strategically relevant. The threats are: the presence of new countries in the Georgian technical services market (such as Egypt) and the presence of countries that have already imported technical and engineering services from Iran (such as the Republic of Azerbaijan). This confirms the need for a fresh and immediate review, analysis of competitors and the choice of penetration and competition strategies in the Georgian service market.
    3.6 Stability of Tax Laws in Georgia in Recent Years:

    The following table shows the tax rate of Georgia.

    Belong

    Tax title

    15 %

    Corporate profit Tax

     

    18 %

    Value Added Tax

     

    0%, 5%, 12%

    Custom Tax-Import

     

    1 %

    Property Tax

     

    20 %

    Personal Income Tax

     

     

    3.7 The Georgian banking system


    In Georgia, the National Bank of Georgia is in charge of the central bank (such as printing banknotes, setting rates and the like). In addition to the classical banking network, there are organizations in the country called "micro finance credit organizations" that perform operations such as granting some facilities and some credits as well as some remittances. But interviews with a number of business stakeholders in Georgia suggest that some of these institutions may be subject to money laundering, so it is strongly recommended that Iranian activists refrain from cooperating with them.

     In the field studies of the Georgian banking network, it was found that most of the experts and employees of this banking network do not have reliable and reliable information on foreign exchange and credit transactions and transactions, such as finding a qualified banking expert on issues such as letters of credit or guarantees during field studies. Banking has virtually failed. It was interesting that a bank PR manager was referring to the Babylon Glossary on the computer to know the meaning of LC!

    In the Georgian banking network there are no defined non-cash payment instruments, so concepts such as checks and brochures are meaningless. Bank commission rates are relatively high, with the annual interest rate on local currency (Lari) accounts at 4% and the annual interest rate on long-term accounts up to 13%.

    Field studies indicate that the bulk of foreign exchange activity is carried out solely through bank supervision in Tbilisi. These banks usually tend to have simple non-refundable letter of credit. These banks refuse to accept transferable LCs, segregated LCs, PAs and many more, but in some cases issue LCs and L / Cs.

    Regarding the guarantees required for the Georgian domestic market, some local banks have both the possibility of issuing mutual guarantees and the possibility of issuing their own guarantees. Minimum Guarantee Fees for Local Employers Provided with Cash in Local Accounts (Depending on Cash to Ratio) 0.3% (Three-Tenths Percent) per Month and 2% (Two%) for Off-Site Guarantees In the month that comes with the expiration of the warranty, the figure becomes significant, for example, the fee for an 18-month domestic guarantee in Georgia will be about 5.4%. The commission rate of counterfeiting varies depending on the size of the issuing bank's credit and the amount of the guarantee and its beneficiaries and many other factors, but according to Georgian banking experts, the overwhelming majority of cases are more likely to make the internal guarantee a cheaper direct deposit.

    The following banks are active in Georgia:

    1- Bank of Georgia (Local name of Succulent Bank) www.bog.ge

    2- ProCredit Bank www.procreditbank.ge

    2- ProCredit Bank www.procreditbank.ge

    3. VTB Bank www.vtb.ge

    4- Cardbank www.cartubank.ge

    5- BTC Bank www.btcbank.bank

    3.8 Investigate the fluctuations in land prices

    Given the current rules in Georgia, there is no definite transfer of 100% of any land to foreigners (except agricultural land), and given the risk and inflation rate today many people buy land from all over Europe. Georgia is watching. On the other hand, the rising price of housing units is a fact that cannot be denied in the form of $ 750 per square meter in Tbilisi (Appendix 5), which was previously impossible. As a result of the aforementioned, the excessive macroeconomic factors have led to an increase in land prices, which in turn may affect future inflation and other economic factors. Of course, there have been discussions about restrictions on the purchase of land by foreign nationals (since the beginning of 2012), with serious doubts as to its accuracy and probability, and are likely to be widespread by real estate consultants. But it has added to the lust for foreigners' thirst for land acquisition.

     

    3.9 Statistical Investigation of Investment in Georgia


    Given that foreign investment statistics and country risk ratings are always correlated, the statistics presented in capitalist countries have been found to be biased. Therefore, the statistics of independent international authorities play an important role in the validation of data and economic analysis. Reliable and reliable statistical data in internationally recognized systems (such as the World Bank and World Trade Center) are limited to 2007-2008 only. Because Georgia's Investment Law (literally) was signed on June 30, 2006, the 2009 and 2010 information, on the other hand, has not yet been classified. The International Trade Center notes that field evidence indicates an increase in foreign investment in 2010. The analysis states that the economic situation and revenues of the Georgian government require that most of its civil engineering and engineering projects be defined in partnerships with the private sector such as BOT, BLT, EPCF and the like. Hence, with the onset of the military crisis between Georgia and Russia (Abkhazia and South Ossetia) many foreign investors were expelled from the region. And it was early 2010, when foreign investment in the country increased again by the beginning of 2011. Evidence also suggests that a number of buildings have been added around the city and a number of construction workshops that have been closed on the previous trip have recently started operating. The relative boom caused by the increased investment activity in the city is also evident, with the land price doubling in the past 7 months, the traffic load increasing sharply, and with some local furniture activists saying that demand for furniture has increased. The past year has increased dramatically. The Georgian government has provided some specific programs during the recent period of investment growth, some of which are as follows:


    1. In order to preserve the appearance of the city as well as to improve the appearance of old buildings (especially on important streets such as Rostovili, Chachavadzeh, Pegin and Vake), the local government has renovated some of the government buildings, including offices, residential complexes, etc. Delivers to investors. In some cases, the complete demolition and construction of a new building will be left to investors (Appendix 3).

    2. The Georgian Government has designated one of the Black Sea ports of Anaklia as a tourist area and has now launched several companies from various countries (such as Turkey, Egypt and other countries) (Annex 4). .

    3. Sections of government and governing bodies are to be transferred from Tbilisi to Kutaisi, where the transfer of the parliament has been finalized. This has also made the city the focus of foreign-based companies in Georgia and the market for services is moving.

    4. Georgia is a rugged, mountainous country, and this feature has highlighted the problem of road and land communication as one of its most important challenges. In a way, as certified by history, the way forward is one of the most effective means of encouraging public opinion and gathering electoral votes. Given that the 2012 parliamentary elections will be held, this area could be considered an important market for road sector activists.

     

    3.10 Investment Facilities and Discounts


    As highlighted in the legal section of the first section of the report, Georgia's Investment Law, like other tax laws on investment income, has provided taxpayers with small tax deductions, but instead provides other facilities such as transfers and ownership to the investor. External. In this way, the foreign investor is allowed to transfer 100% ownership of the immovable property. But under Article 9 of the Georgian Foreign Investment Development Act, adopted on June 30, 2006 if the investment amounts to more than 8 million GEL (about 56 billion Iranian rials at the time of this report), or if the investment in the mountainous area of ​​Georgia exceeds 2 million GEL (approx. 16 billion Iranian rials at the time of writing of the report) The government is providing the foreign investor with a certificate of "highly significant investment" that includes significant tax rebates and customs exemptions. On the other hand, it should be noted that all political risks of foreign investment in Georgia, together with the risks of nationalization and local court ruling against an Iranian investor, are covered by the Iran Export Guarantee Fund, but this does not cover commercial and economic investment risks.

     

    3.11 Indicators of Economic Freedom


    Investigating the changes in economic freedom as an indicator of the openness of the private sector can provide useful information to private sector investors. Figure 9 shows the trend of liberalization of the Georgian economy in the last four years.

    Georgia's economic freedom rating stands at 69.4, bringing the country's economy to 34th in 2012. Georgia's overall score on this index is down one point from last year. In the meantime, the index of corruption, government spending, business freedom, and monetary freedom have also declined. In the European region, Georgia ranks 16th out of 43 countries and is higher than the world average on this index.

    Georgia has fallen into the category of "mostly free" in the past two years, but has fallen to "relatively free" this year (2012). However, the Georgian economy is doing well in some key policies. Significant reforms have been implemented to improve the effectiveness of regulations, free market policies and low tax rates. Despite the severe contraction caused by the Russian occupation and the global economic downturn, the Georgian economy has shown high elasticity as a whole.

    The institutional weakness in the two areas demands greater commitment to reform. Georgia's ranking in the area of ​​administrative corruption and property rights protection is still below the global average, and partial reforms have not yet made a significant improvement. In addition, public spending as part of the GDP has been growing and budget deficits have been negative.

     

    3.12 Customs Regulations, Agreements and Discounts

    Customs as a port of entry and export for each country, has a prominent role in business, and familiarity with the rules and procedures of the target market is a prerequisite for the success of any large or small business. Unfortunately, a complete written source containing customs rules, regulations, and regulations is not available in your Georgian bookstores. So information on this

     

    Compare rankings, 2012

     

    Country trends

     

     

    Country

    Global middleware

    Regional middleware

    Free markets

    4/69

    5/59

    7/84

    1/66

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

     

    68

    69

    70

    71

    72

     

    Non-free

    Often non-free

    Somewhat free

    Frequently free

    Free

    0-49.9

    50-59.9

    60-69.9

    70-79.9

    80-89.9

    Figure 9, The process of economic liberalization [Heritage Institute and Dow Jones Corporation]


    The extract is mainly extracted from the report submitted by the Chief Customs Officer of LiloTelephis (Ms. Nino Sharashenizadeh) to Dr. Ali Reza Beigi, Honorable Governor of East Azerbaijan:

    There are 4 large and 5 small customs complexes active in Georgia. Georgian goods pass through two green or red routes in customs. The bulk of goods imported into Georgia pass through the green corridor, but if the goods are suspected or the importer has negative customs clearance in Georgia, the goods in question will be directed to the red corridor. In 2011, about 5% of imported goods were directed to the red corridor. The clearance process on the green corridor takes between 15 and 20 minutes. Georgian importers who have a positive track record in Georgian customs benefit from additional discounts such as non-inspection clearance and customs clearance up to one week after the final clearance. Importers who do not have a track record can also ship their goods directly from the border to their warehouse where customs clearance is carried out by mobile customs carriers, with all the necessary facilities, including network-connected computers, printers. , Provides hologram stickers and other equipment. But if the goods are directed to the red corridor, there is much more scrutiny. From an export point of view, exporters who do not have a negative track record in the Georgian customs can carry out the customs formalities of their export goods in their warehouse and send them directly to the border port. Customs formalities of fast-food goods (such as meat, dairy, fruit, etc.) are generally carried out in the exporter's warehouse. The Georgian Customs provide the two groups of exporters with the Seal and Bandolol Customs, to clear the exported goods in the exporter's warehouse.

    Georgia, despite its membership in the WTO, has an agreement with some countries on a customs facilitation agreement. Information on World Trade Center websites indicates that Georgia has some preferences and customs agreements with some CIS countries, as well as Turkey, but numerous studies do not show such discounts for non-strategic goods (Table 7).

     

     

    3.13 Registration of Company in Georgia and Issues

    According to the custom of many countries, for a foreigner to work in a country, a legal entity (company) needs to be registered in the host country. Registering a company in Georgia is very easy and simple compared to other marginal markets in Iran (Iraq, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, UAE and others) and requires significantly less time and cost. So that the company registration process is practically 2 days with a cost of up to $ 500. Company managers can also apply for a 24 hour stay by depositing 4,000 lari (about $ 2,300).

     

    Table 7 List of goods subject to discounts and customs preferences in Georgia

    Namkala / CodeManagement System Tariff regime

    Avg

    Portland cement, white cement and non-abnormal cements

    252321

    Countries of the world

    12%

    CIS tariff rebates

    0 %

    Tariff discounts for Turkey

    0%

    Cast iron and steel profiles and pipes

    730300

    Other countries in the world

    0%

    There is no mutual benefit agreement with any country

    Construction polyethylene pipes

    391731

    Other countries in the world

    0 %

    There is no mutual benefit agreement with any country

    Such relatively easy conditions are generally due to the Georgian government's attempt to increase the number of registered companies, to show the growing business situation in the country and to obtain credit resources from international monetary and financial institutions.

    This, of course, also has the opposite point, and given the negative impact of the growth of corporate dissolution statistics in calculating the business situation in a country, the Georgian government, by creating legal and regulatory barriers to corporate dissolution, has effectively liquidated a company in a very process. It has become costly and time consuming which has discouraged many from liquidating the company. Finally, individuals or companies who (for any reason) no longer wish to continue their business simply deactivate (rather than liquidate) the company with a private meeting. This has greatly increased the number of passive companies in Georgia, which does not seem to matter. But it has been repeatedly found that the names and trademarks of these passive companies have been misused for some purpose, and that the Iranians have also been the victims.

     

    3.14 Other Economic Components of Georgia

    Table 8 presents Georgia's supplementary economic indicators (cia.gov reference).

    Table 8 Supplementary Economic Indicators of Georgia

    Indicator title

    Announced last year

    Level

    Ranked Worldwide

    Real growth track

    2010

    4/6%

    46

    Purchasing power

    2010

    44/22billion dollars

    121

    work force

    2007

    1918000 People

    123

    Unemployment rate

    2009

    4/16%

    153

    Guinness Index

    2009

    8/40

    58

    investment

    2010

    4/15% frome GDP

    132

    Taxes

    2010

    2/28% frome GDP

    98

    The inflation rate

    2010

    1/7

    179

    Electricity Generation

    2008

    292/8bilion kWh

    96

     Export of electrical energy

    2008

    675milion  kWh

     

    Import of electrical energy 

    2008

    117Million  kWh

     

    Oil production

    2010

    984Barrels a day

    103

     

    3.15 Important Tips on Investing in Georgia


    As stated in the Banking Investigations section of this report, in Georgia non-banking banking instruments (such as Bravat, Czech, speculative and the like) have not been defined in their general and well-known meaning and hence have posed many problems to Iranian businessmen for many years. Are familiar with these trading tools, has provided. Powerful individuals and nongovernmental organizations each have a number of satellite companies that do their business for many reasons (such as taxation) through these multiple satellite companies. It is no secret that these small companies usually fail in the accreditation process, and therefore tools such as transaction capital insurance (as ECAs do) cannot guarantee the return of the issuer's capital. Adding to all these problems is the local government's decision to "define the bulk of development projects in the form of investment, including BOT, BLT, EPCF and the like", forcing the Iranian exporter to cooperate with the private sector. Finally, the Iranian exporter, in order to ensure the return of its capital, initially faces a confusing collapse and ultimately does not raise the volume of the transaction to a reasonable level due to the risk aversion. The bottom line is that the volume of transactions by most competitors has increased, but the volume of transactions by Iranian merchants is not growing at all. It remains small in scope. Bee was investigated on the ground of the project site and other ways, each of which was screened for various reasons such as lack of necessary performance guarantees, lack of generality, high cost, and the like. The only way to manage risks fairly optimally is "contracting at notaries". In this case, and if the other party fails to fulfill its obligations and the problems and obligations are not resolved amicably, further action can be taken, such as referral to arbitration or legal authorities. An important point in this approach is to ensure that the counterparty is financially capable.

    3.16 Business Environment and Problems


    From the perspective of national-level strategies, the first steps for Iranian companies to be present in international markets, in principle, must be very precise and accountable and somehow supervised by professional organizations. In other words, how the first Iranian economic activist in each market operates can be both problematic and highly problematic for later activists. Field studies indicate that the first Iranian presence in the Georgian market is greater than the native of Fereidoun Shahr in Isfahan, ancestors of Georgians who had been relocated by King Abbas I to Georgia from Fereidun Shahr. Of course, there are people coming from Azerbaijan and Ardabil provinces. The number of deployed Iranians (both resident and non-resident) has increased in recent months, with field observations showing that more than 10 Iranian real estate agents have been established in Tbilisi over the past three months, according to Iranian activists. The number of Persian leaflets in the city has increased dramatically, especially in the streets of Rostovili, Chachavadza and some other places. Considering the in-person talks and on the streets of the city, it was found that the majority of these Georgian-based Iranians were between the ages of 20 and 35 and were involved in various fields such as computer, meat products, fast food, tourism services, restaurant services. And real estate consultants. However, all of these business groups are in parallel trying to get real estate brokers and even make phone deals with buyers inside Iran, which can be considered a danger because these people are subject to the legal and legal issues of the Georgian aristocracy. They do not and after the expense of the last time or transaction there is no deal or if the transaction is done causing great damage to the Iranian side.

     

    3.17 Mining and mineral resources


    Mines and the use of mineral resources in Georgia have not grown significantly. There is only one major mining company in Georgia called Madnoli, which is practically part of GeoProMining. The field of activity of this company is the extraction and extraction of ferrous metals (mainly copper and gold).

    The most important steel complex of Georgia in the former Soviet era was called "Rustavi", which was renamed after the collapse of the "Georgian Steel Corporation". The company was acquired in 2007 by the British company Times Limited. But due to problems with nationalization and legal issues in the Georgian judiciary, the buyer has not yet been delivered and there is no good prospect of delivering it. It is noteworthy that in 2009 Eurasia Steel Henustan launched a rolling-capacity steel unit. It started 200,000 tonnes a year in the city of Kotaysi, scheduled to be operational by the end of 2011.

    3.18 Conclusion

     

     

     

    4 Useful Resources

    Tender Information Website

    • http://www.gogc.ge/en/tenders
    • http://www.georoad.ge/index.php?que=eng/tenders/international
    • http://water.gov.ge/eng/projects-and-tenders/current
    • http://www.georoad.ge/index.php?que=eng/tenders/current
    • http://www.economy.ge/?category=3&lang=eng

     

    Printed sources

    • Trade Guide with Georgia, Iran Trade Promotion Organization, April 2009
    • Investment climate and opportunities in Georgia, Ministry of Economy and Sustainable development of Georgia, May 2011
    • How to establish a bank in Georgia, Ministry of Economy and Sustainable development of Georgia, Feb 2012
  • Georgia Celebrities And Stars

    A Brief List of Georgia's Celebrities and Stories

    Shota Rustaveli

    Ilya Chavchavadze

    Akaki Tsereteli

    Waza Peshawla

    Jacob Gogbashvili

    Nico Pirosmani

     

    Shota Rustaveli

    2_190752 درباره گرجستان

    Shota Rustaveli was a Georgian poet of the 5th century. He is considered the greatest Georgian poet of classical non-religious literature. Rustaveli is the author of the Epic Pelengineh Push (Vepkhis Taqaeusani), a national epic of Georgia.
    Little is known about him, but as the eighth poem of the poem shows, the poet introduces himself as "Rustaveli" (a villager). Other clues in the poem suggest that Rustaveli was an educated educator as well as a prominent nobleman in the court of Georgia's greatest king, Queen Tamar (1213-1160 AD), and mastered his masterpiece - written between the years 1 and 2 AD. Queen Tamar donated. In year 2, a group of Georgian scholars and archaeologists in Jerusalem found an image of Rostavli on the walls of a church built in the ninth century that contained a medieval Georgian inscription depicting an elderly man - wearing white and long beards and a cloak and cloak. He is magnificently dressed - introduces "Shota Rustaveli". Researchers say Rostavoli had a pilgrimage to Jerusalem before his death.
    The poem "Leopard" or "Leopard in the Skin" is a story in which Rustaveli speaks of humanistic ideals in the Middle Ages: love, friendship, bravery, and so on. The heroes of the story are brave, altruistic and generous. The location of the Penghin story is not limited to Georgia, and there are Arabian lands, Iranian plateau, Indian peninsula and Tibetan plateau.
    .

    Planking is often regarded as the epic poem of the Georgian nationals. This song is widely acclaimed by literary experts for its language and playfulness. This work was first published in Tbilisi in the year 6 AD and has been translated into five living languages ​​around the world, including Persian. Plengineh Posh was first translated into Persian by Farshid Delshad and was published in Iran by the Iranian Cup Publications in Tehran in the same year. Farshid Delshad's translation is based on the Georgian version of this work, using the Persian Saree and Masjid Prose. This translation is actually "the basis of the work and source of the second translation of this work into Persian that Mohammad Kazem Yousefpour (the translator) mentioned in his preface acknowledges his lack of proficiency in Georgian and the use of English and English translations. Known for his work in Arabic, this book was published by the University of Guilan Press in 2007. Dr. Delshad's translation is the only practical translation that has been repeatedly praised in various literary and critical sources in Georgia. Farshid Delshad and Mohammad Kazem Yousefpour translate this work into Persian, each with a Georgian literary mark by Ray in different years The Republic of Georgia received.
    The Pentecostal System contains 8 rhymed rhythmic straps and has been sung with the rhythm of the classical Georgian weight of sixteen syllables.
     

    1_190753 درباره گرجستان

    Synopsis
    The Pentateuch narrates the adventures of Avtandil, an Arab nobleman and his friend, Prince of India Tariel. Awandil, his beloved envoy, Tinatin, the daughter of the Arab ruler who recently gave him the throne - is on a quest to find a fugitive and mysterious knight wearing leopard skin. Avandale finds the knight and realizes that he is the darkness. Dark is sad about the loss of his king's daughter, Nestan Dariean. Avandale accompanies Dark to find Darjan's nest. Nastan Darjan is imprisoned by an evil man in an impenetrable castle. Eventually Avandale and Darkness release Prince Nathan of Darjan with the help of Prince Pridon. The story ends with two simultaneous marriages. Aventanil with Tinatin and Dark with Darjan Nastan
    .

    Ilya Chavchavadze

    1_190881 درباره گرجستان

    Ilya Chavchavazeh was a poet, prose writer, political and social writer, critic, historian and intellectual of the most important Georgian social order of the nineteenth century and leader of the national liberation movement. Elijah Oct 4, 2008 He was born in Gavaril, Chavchavadzes, in Gavarli (eastern Georgia, Kakheti region). Mary Babor Yeshvili, mother of Ilya since childhood, expressed her interest in Georgian culture. Elijah completed his elementary education in his village and came to Tbilisi at age eight and was assigned to a private boarding house.
    In 2008, Ilya Chavchavaza enrolled at the University of Petersburg Law School. Studying at university had a fruitful future for this great personality. He studied extensively, especially on political and economic subjects. Georgia has been working hard to study and learn the cultural artifacts of the past several hundred years. Under his leadership, the St. Petersburg Georgian Students' Companion Society collected old Georgian books and a rich collection of manuscripts.
    In the formation of the Ilya political worldview, Russian revolutionary-democratic figures Chernyshevski, Dobrolubov, Blinsky and Gertsen were influential. During his student years in European thought history, Elijah became acquainted with the great French intellectuals, German philosophy, including Hegel's idealistic socialist society.
    During his student years, Ilya translated the poems of Pushkin, Lermontov, Byron, Goethe and others. He was fond of Shakespeare. Ilya Chavchavadze, along with Ivan Machabeli, is Shakespeare's first translator to Georgian.
    In the 5th year, Ilya returned to Georgia. At the same time he was engaged in social activities. His life and creativity had two goals: the fight for the liberation of the nation and the fight against social oppression. Ilya's poems are filled with excitement and excitement.
    In his "Travel Letters," Ilya clearly formulated the national liberation policy. In Elijah's "Zahid" poem, Ilyas discussed the mundane issues of the nature of life and faith.... All of Ilya's creativity is the cornerstone of unlimited love for the home, sincere service to the nation, a fierce struggle for justice and goodness. Elijah was the founder and regenerator of almost all the associations that had been formed in the last three decades of the nineteenth century. Bank of Georgia, Association for the Development of Georgian Literacy and Archives of Ancient Georgian Manuscripts Archived at the foundation for the National Museum of Georgia, Permanent Actors Board, Georgian Theater Reconstruction and many more.
    Elijah worked actively throughout his life. In 2008, he introduced a demand for Georgia's political autonomy. In 2008, he represented Georgia at the Russian Empire Congress and was elected a member of the State Council. 1907 AD Ilya returned to Georgia. August 28 That year, Ilya was killed in a treacherous village near Tsitsamuri.
    In 1987 It was sanctified by the Georgian Orthodox Church of Ilya Chavchavadze
    .

    2_190882 درباره گرجستان

            (Tomb of Ilya Chavchavadze in "Tomb of Georgian Celebrities" near Mount Mamadaviti - Tbilisi)  

     

    Akaki Tsereteli

    1_190884 درباره گرجستان

    Akaki Tseresteli was one of the most beloved Georgian poets and writers (4-5) and a prominent figure in the Georgian Patriotic Liberation Movement. Acacia Sertley June 21, 1840 He was born in the village of Sukhituri (West Georgia, Imereti region). She completed her secondary education at Kutaisi High School. After graduating from the Faculty of Oriental Studies at the University of Petersburg, he returned to Georgia in 7 years. But he never served in government office. It was creative, free and intrinsically connected to people. He shared with them the calamity and calamity and always supported dissidents and intellectuals. Akaki Tsereteli was accompanied by Ilya Chavchavadze, leader of the 19th-century National Liberation Movement.
    Akaki Tsereteli is the author of famous poems (dawn - Chengori - Soliko...) Poems (Coach - Tornike Aristowoli...), Stories (My Story - Bashi Auchuki...) Comics and Humor (Scene in Prison - Forced - Kinto Social and political articles and comic articles. Akaki drew the attention of the community by joking and present at a young age. He was an unsung source of popular literature and the influence of popular culture on his writings is evident. And he had a great part in collecting works of popular literature
    .

    2_190885 درباره گرجستان

    (Statue of Ilya Chavchavadze and Akaki Tsereteli in front of Tbilisi School No.1; Sculptor and Topuridzes, 1958)

     

    Waza Peshawla

    1_192734 درباره گرجستان

    Vaja Pshavela (Luka Razikashvili) was one of the great Georgian writers and poets. He was born on July 14, 1861 in the village of Chargali in the mountainous province of eastern Georgia to a religious and religious family. At the age of eight, he studied at the Religious School (Seminary) in the town of Talavi (Kakheti region - East Georgia) and in 1871-1879 he studied at the Public School of the Modarres Institute of Education in Tbilisi. Graduated from Gori Graduate School of Education. In 1883 he entered the Russian University of Saint Petersburg in law, but returned to Georgia in 1884 due to the heavy expenses of the university and worked as a Georgian language teacher. Since 1888 He returned to his village, Chargali and worked like other peasants. Vaja Pshavela was an influential person among the mountain people of her area and rarely traveled to the city. He was also a prominent member of the Georgian National Movement.
    The rich and varied creativity of the term Pashavela is in works such as order, prose, popular articles, social and political literature. His stories depict the lives of mountain people, their traditions, and deal with the harsh social problems of the time. In the years of Wajha Peshawla's life, her writings as a separate book were rarely published. In the years 1925-1956 under the guidance and guidance of A. Abasheli's most comprehensive collection of works by Vogha Peshawla has been published in seven volumes. His works have been translated and published in Russian, English, French, German and other languages ​​around the world. In 1961, the World Peace Council celebrated the 100th anniversary of Wajha Peshawla around the world.
    Vaja Pshavela died on July 27, 1915 in Tbilisi. He is buried in the pantheon of Georgian writers and public figures (Georgian Tomb of Fame)
    .

    2_192736 درباره گرجستان
          
             House-Museum of Vaja Pshavela in Chargali

     

    Jacob Gogbashvili

    2_192747 درباره گرجستان

    Jakob Gogebashvili, the founder of science education in Georgia, was a writer, children's writer, and Georgian social activist. He was born on October 15, 1948, in a family of poor priests in the Variani region of eastern Georgia. He began his elementary education at the Gori City School and continued his education at Tbilisi Religious School for two years and at the Kiev Religious Academy for two years. He attended classes at the University of Kiev in the field of natural sciences under the auspices of renowned professors and was unable to complete his university education due to physical and health disadvantages (inevitably) and was forced to return to Georgia in Year 6. He has been teaching in Tbilisi high schools since he was 9, and even went on to become an inspector in the education system, but was expelled from the education system in 2007 for being an unreliable element because of his involvement in freedom groups.
    Gogbashvili served extensively in promoting the Georgian language, generalizing literacy and culture among the Georgian community. He was the founder of Children's Literature, an active member of various communities including the Association for the Development and Promotion of Literacy among Georgians.
    .

    1_192748 درباره گرجستان

    Gogbashvili was the inventor of the first Georgian alphabet textbook in the year 2 entitled "Dada Ena" (Mother Language). Gogebashvili died in year 2. The collection of Gogbashvili's works was published in 5 volumes in the years 4-5.
    He is buried in the pantheon of Georgian writers and public figures (Georgian Tomb of Fame)
    .

     

    Nico Pirosmani

    1_199274 درباره گرجستان


    Niko Pirosmani-Nikala, a well-known Georgian painter, one of the world's leading primitivist painters, was born in 1862 in the Georgian village of Mirzani. Her parents were farmers and lived in a small vineyard. Nico's father was born in 1870. When Nico was eight years old, he lost sight of the world. Mary, one of two newly married sisters who had recently settled in Tbilisi, took Nico with him to help her mother and Nico and accept some of the responsibility of family life to keep her in better shape. But soon the good sister Mary died of a cholera outbreak in Tbilisi, and her husband sent her to the Kalantarov family for work and home work, and especially "pre-service." Her overwhelming interest in painting was as far as she could go. All the walls of her room were covered in paintings, and when she fell in love with the big sister-in-law Elizabeth Kalantarov, she left Nice to stay in the Kalantarov family forever, so she began a life of wandering and searching for her own personality. .
    In the 1940s, he founded a painting workshop with another painter in a style similar to his own (G. Zaziahashvili) and took orders for paintings for shops and shops. He worked on the Caucasian Railway in 1890-1894, then traded... In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, he sought refuge in the houses and shops of Tbilisi and ordered boards, He painted portraits and so on. Throughout his years of earnings for small and medium incomes, he was inspired and painted by his large jobs. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he painted on linen. He didn't pay attention to details, and for him the story was more important in painting. His whole day was spent in poverty. Artists of his time more or less tried to help him, but Nico Pirosmani died in poverty and loneliness, and his tomb is unknown. Nico Pirosmani became known after his death.
    Post-war works were largely influenced by the events and social conditions of his time and place. His paintings were a deep reflection of his thoughts. Much of the artist's work is currently housed in private collections in the former Soviet countries at the National Museum of Art of Georgia, as well as some foreign museums
    .

     

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  • Georgian National Security Document

    Georgian National Security Document

    Introduction

    This is the second time that Georgia has released a national security document. The new document reflects the developments in the country's security space and its impact on the dangers, challenges and threats facing the country's security.

    Georgia's National Security Document has been drafted as a basic document, outlining and defining national values ​​and interests, threats and challenges to national security, and adopting the country's policy axes.

    Georgia's national security document is drafted by the executive branch and approved by parliament. Political parties, nongovernmental organizations, and civil society organizations also participated in drafting the national security document. According to this document, the Georgian government is committed to preserving national values ​​and interests and responding to threats and challenges facing the country.

    According to the National Security Document, various plans and programs are developed in other fields. These programs are renewed as a national document.

     

    Security space of the country


    Georgia's security environment has changed due to recent global and regional developments. Russia's massive invasion of Georgia in 2008 showed that wars and military operations were still a means of achieving political ends in today's world.

    The Russian invasion of Georgia in 2008 and the deployment of bases and occupation forces on Georgian soil created significant threats to the country's security environment. The 2008 war also showed that Russia was not ready to accept Georgia's national sovereignty, democratic elections, and domestic and foreign policy. In fact, the Russian military attack endangered the security of the Caucasus region. The continuing crisis in the North Caucasus and the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict also have a negative impact on Georgia's security. Therefore, the establishment of peace and the opportunity for cooperation in the Caucasus region will enable Georgia to develop its security.

    It is important for the security of Georgia to develop the process of integration with Europe. Given that Georgia is a member of the European and Euro-Atlantic area, NATO and the EU's eastward development is important to Georgia.

    Georgia has so far maintained its relations with democratic countries around the world, and their support of Georgia is helping to foster democracy in Georgia.

    Given the global developments, domestic political developments have a major impact on the formation of the country's security environment. Therefore, the development of democracy's achievements through reform can strengthen and consolidate the country's institutions.

    Maintaining the country's long-term economic growth by adhering to free market principles, fiscal and monetary policy discipline is important for the country's sustainable development. Free trade and economic cooperation and cooperation with countries around the world, including the European Union, the United States and the region, are among the top priorities of Georgia.

    Georgian national values

    Right to sovereignty and territorial integrity:

    Georgia is an independent, united and indivisible state within the boundaries defined in its consttution, which always recognizes and expects the territorial integrity and sovereignty of other states. Any attempt or action to restrict sovereignty, interfere in domestic affairs, and change foreign policy by force is unacceptable to Georgia.

    the freedom:

    Georgia recognizes the rights and freedoms recognized in the Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations Convention on Political and Civil Rights, and the European Convention for the Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms, and guarantees its constitution. Georgia upholds the rights and freedoms of all human beings and groups residing in the country and respects their right to vote, freedom of expression and belief. Georgia provides a good opportunity to raise the ability of its citizens. He also believes that economic freedom is a prerequisite for ensuring the freedom and rights of individuals.

    Democracy and the rule of law:

    Georgia adheres to the values and principles of democracy, under which it establishes a democratic system of government. The rule in this system is divided by the law and between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. Georgia provides rule of law, pluralism and minority rights, including ethnic and religious minorities, and promotes the development of civil society and democratic institutions.

    Security:

    The Georgian Government seeks to secure the security of its nationals and institutions at the borders recognized by the international community and in line with international standards and principles. Georgia believes in the fragmentation of security in the country and the international system, since one country's security will not be developed through undermining the security of other countries.

    Welfare:

    Georgia believes that the pursuit of prosperity is a fundamental human right and can only be realized in an open space. For the sake of the well-being of the Georgian people, the Georgian government creates a model of sustainable development based on free economy, small government principle, macroeconomic policy, low tax and targeted social policy.

    Peace:

    Georgia's goal is to establish relations based on the principles and principles of international law with the countries of the world. Georgia uses peaceful methods and international law to resolve disputes. A free, independent, developed and integrated Georgia can play an important role in strengthening regional and international security.

     

    Georgian National Interest:




    1. Securing territorial integrity and sovereignty: Georgia seeks to restore and preserve its territorial integrity and to safeguard its recognized borders by international community in a just and peaceful manner.

    2. Developing Democracy and Governmental Institutions: Georgia is developing a model for managing the country to ensure the sustainability and development of the country's political system. Strengthening democratic institutions to protect human rights, uphold the rule of law, freedom of expression, freedom of conscience, freedom of opinion, freedom of religion and freedom of belief are Georgia's goals. In this regard, it is important to establish democratic values, raise public awareness and increase confidence in government institutions.

    3- Developing an efficient and effective security system of the country: Creating an efficient security system to ensure the development of the country and security of the people is one of the goals of the government.

    4. Strengthening National Unity and Civil Understanding: Georgia safeguards the interests, rights and freedoms of its citizens. In this regard, the state seeks to create a society based on the principles of equality, pluralism, justice and tolerance, without regard to nationality, race, language, gender, beliefs, and political affiliation. Active participation of Georgian people's representatives in the political and social spheres is one of the priorities of the government. At the same time, it is important to develop relations with the inhabitants of the occupied territories and to participate in the political, economic, social and cultural affairs of the country.

    5. Convergence with Europe and the Euro-Atlantic institutions: Georgia seeks to integrate with the Euro-Atlantic institutions in order to consolidate democracy in order to ensure the security and prosperity of the country. Georgia also believes that the choice of the path of development and membership in the treaties is an indisputable right of independent states.

    6. Providing Continuous and Long-Term Growth of the Georgian Economy: Creating the right conditions for the long-term growth of the country's economy is one of the political-security priorities of Georgia. In this regard, the government will pursue the free development of the country's economy, the expansion of economic cooperation, the attraction of foreign investment, the strict implementation of fiscal policy, and the preservation of the principle of small government.

    7. Energy Security: Diversification of energy resources and transmission lines is one of Georgia's priorities for energy security. Therefore, it is important to maximize the use of domestic resources, modernize the country's energy system and integrate it with regional infrastructure. In this regard, increasing the country's energy potential will affect the country's security, people's welfare and economic development.

    8- Providing Regional Security: European developments, the Black Sea Basin and the Caucasus region have a direct impact on Georgia's security. The developments in the Central Asian and Middle East region are also very influential. Maintaining stability, peacekeeping, and peaceful resolution of disputes in these areas is one of Georgia's goals. Through bilateral and multilateral cooperation, it can contribute to the development of regional security.

    9. Strengthening Georgia's Transit Role: Georgia is ready to be more active in international energy, transport and communications projects in order to strengthen its transit role.

    10. Georgia and the region's environmental security: The protection of the environment and the effective use of natural resources are closely linked to health and social security. The issue of environmental security has always been a concern in the implementation of national and international projects.

    11. Providing National and Cultural Identity and Civic Integration: Preserving and developing cultural diversity and national identity is a priority for the Georgian government. The convergence of different ethnicities and their participation in building the country is important for Georgia. Therefore, the government provides favorable conditions for the preservation and development of the identity and culture of different ethnic groups.

    12. Enhancing Cyber ​​Security: It is important for Georgia to maintain the information space and maintain electronic information. With the rapid development of information technologies, the dependence of government agencies on these technologies is increasing. Therefore, it is necessary to combat cybercrime and prevent cyberbullying.

    13- Population security: Providing the right conditions for a healthy lifestyle, raising the life expectancy, encouraging Georgians resettled abroad and re-integrating them are among the most important priorities of the government. Population security is directly linked to the long-term sustainable growth of the country's economy.

    14. Strengthening relations with Georgians and compatriots abroad: Helping educate the mother tongue and preserving Georgian cultural identity abroad is another priority of the government.

     

    Dangers, Threats, and Challenges to Georgia




    Character limit: 5000
    1- Russian occupation of Georgia's territories and terrorist acts in these areas: Georgia was a victim of Russian invasion in the early 20th century during Soviet occupation for 70 years. Georgia gained its independence in 1991, coupled with the political and economic instability caused by Russia's actions. In the early 1990s, separatist movements in Georgia led by Russia turned into armed conflicts. In addition to armed separatist groups, Russian forces also participated in the clashes. These clashes have led to ethnic cleansing, which was recognized by the United Nations and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

    Russia again invaded Georgia in August 2008 to violate Georgia's sovereignty and territorial integrity and to limit its free and democratic elections, leading to a new wave of ethnic cleansing. Russia's illegal actions have been documented in the reports and documents of the European Commission's fact-finding commission, and have been recognized by parliaments and governments of some countries and international organizations occupying areas of Georgia by Russia.

    In order to legitimize its military actions, the Russian government violated the principles of international law and the August 12, 2008 ceasefire agreement. It recognized the occupied territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali as independent states and deployed its troops and bases there. Russia has also called on the world to recognize the independence of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali. Russia has been using some of its political and economic leverage to pressure some of these countries.

    Russia's occupation of Georgia's territories, which violates Georgia's sovereignty and political independence, is the most important cause of political, economic and social instability. The militarization of the occupied territories and the deployment of Russian ground, air, naval, border and intelligence forces in these areas is a serious threat to the security of Georgia and the entire region.

    Russia's ignoring the principle of respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Russia and its efforts to restructure Euro-Atlantic security and revitalize its sphere of influence threaten not only the security of Georgia but also the security of other Russian and European neighbors.

    Evidence suggests that Russia uses these areas after the August 2008 war to occupy Abkhazia and Tskhinvali to cultivate terrorist groups to carry out terrorist acts on Georgian soil. Preventing the actions of terrorist groups and identifying them is proof of this fact.

    Human rights violations by the Russian puppet regimes and occupation forces are very worrying. Residents of the occupied territories are always insulted and oppressed because of their ethnicity. The Georgian government is also concerned about the process of population change in the occupied territories and the danger of destroying the national Abkhaz culture.

    Russia is seriously harming the Georgian environment with illegal economic activity in the occupied territories and over-exploitation of its natural resources.

    2. Russia's Risk of Military Attack: The Russian military strike on Georgia in August 2008 aimed not only to occupy and recognize Georgian territories but also to change Georgia's foreign policy and overthrow its elected government. Because Russian government circles see free and independent Georgia as a serious threat to Russia. Russia seeks to hinder Georgia's development and integration with Euro-Atlantic institutions. Russia wants to turn Georgia into a sphere of influence. Therefore, the deployment of Russian troops in the occupied territories of Georgia and the increase in the military and weapons capability of its bases are the grounds for a new offensive against Georgia. Russia violates international law and is not willing to implement the ceasefire agreement of August 12, 2008. The country has prevented the United Nations and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Georgia from continuing to operate in Georgia following the August 2008 war, and does not even allow the EU monitors to enter the occupied territories. The Russian government also opposes the deployment of international forces in the occupied territories. Given Russia's actions, Georgia is likely to be attacked again, though international support for Georgia and the presence of EU monitors could be a deterrent.

    3. Violations of forced migrants and displaced persons from occupied areas: The events of the early 1990s followed by the August 2008 war resulted in ethnic cleansing, which left more than 500,000 people, 80% of the occupied population, displaced from their homes. 261,000 people now live in other areas controlled by the Georgian central government. Violating the rights of displaced persons and forced migrants is one of the most important challenges, and the Georgian government has prioritized the return of refugees to their homes and their well-known rights.

    4- Conflicts in the Caucasus: Developing conflicts and crises from neighboring Georgia to Georgia is one of the threats. Conflicts in the Caucasus region, which is a source of crisis development, have a negative impact on the region's security. Russia, meanwhile, seeks to confront the North Caucasus with Georgia. Lack of control of the Georgian and Russian borders in Abkhazia and the Tskhinvali region creates favorable conditions for the development of transnational crime, which in turn is responsible for other crises in the region. The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between the Republic of Azerbaijan and Armenia is another threat to the region's security, and resuming the conflict will certainly disrupt the security of the South Caucasian states and will help to expand Russia's influence in the Caucasus.

      5. International Terrorism and Transnational Organized Crime: Terrorism arising from governmental and non-state actors is one of the major challenges facing the world.

     

    Axes of Georgia's Security Policy

    1. End occupation of the occupied territories and normalization of relations with Russia:


    1.1 - End Occupation of Occupied Territories: Ending Occupation of Occupied Territories, civil integration of the inhabitants of these areas and restoration of Georgian national sovereignty are among the most important priorities of Georgian security policy.

    The Georgian government is taking effective and timely steps in this direction. The Georgian government is also committed to its commitments under the August 12, 2008 ceasefire agreement. On the other hand, according to the Georgian President's speech to the European Parliament on November 23, 2010, the Georgian government has unilaterally committed itself to ceasefire. The President of Georgia reaffirmed his country's commitment through letters to EU, NATO, UN, UN Security Council and European Union leaders and the President of the United States. Georgia continues to present a peace plan for broad-based self-determination based on European standards for the occupied territories, and is even ready to resume economic, cultural and social work with them before the final legal regime of the occupied territories is established. To help rebuild the economy of those areas, return displaced persons and displaced persons.

    Georgia also welcomes proposals and peace plans to help end the occupation of the occupied territories. Active involvement of the international community is needed to end the occupation of Georgia's occupied territories. The international community must pressure Russia to commit to non-aggression against Georgia. International standards, including the principle of non-deployment of foreign forces in other countries, without the prior consent of the country, and to fulfill all its obligations under the August 12, 2008 ceasefire agreement and to withdraw its forces from the occupied territories. In the meantime, the term occupation is one of the parts of the policy of ending the occupation in international legal and political documents. In this regard, the documents issued by the European Parliament, the US Senate and the state institutions of the United States of Georgia are important.

    The Georgian government considers the withdrawal of Russian forces and the deployment of international forces in the occupied territories as the only appropriate mechanism to resolve the crisis. Given the importance of the presence of EU monitors, the Georgian government wants to expand the field of activity of the delegation, as the entry of observers into the occupied territories will help to develop the peace process and the establishment of stability. Meanwhile, the normalization of Russian-Georgian relations could also help resolve disputes in other countries.

    It is important to continue the policy of not recognizing the independence of the occupied territories and endorsing ethnic cleansing from the Georgian perspective. In this regard, the resolutions of 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 of the UN General Assembly, the 1993 UN Security Council Resolutions, the 1994, 1996 and 1999 Resolutions of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the 2011 European Parliament Resolution Be.

    Georgia is expanding its capabilities and expanding its cooperation with the international community to counteract the threat of terrorism caused by Russian actions in the occupied territories.

    The return of displaced persons and forced migrants to their homes, their rights, and their security must be carried out in accordance with international principles and standards so that they can enjoy the right to return freely. Georgia will block any Russian moves to change the ownership and population structure of the Abkhazia and Tskhinvali regions through illegal agreements.

    1.2 - Relations with Russia: Georgia calls for relations based on the principles of good neighborliness and equality with Russia. Such relations would not be possible without Russia's respect for Georgian sovereignty and without the end of the occupation. Georgia is ready to negotiate with Russia.

    Georgia wants to transform Russia into a democratic state so that its relations with others are based on the principles of respect for the right to sovereignty, territorial integrity and the values ​​of democracy. Democratization in Russia and the predictability of its foreign policy will have a positive impact on the security of Georgia and the region.

    Georgia's integration with European and Euro-Atlantic institutions can help bring peace and security to the Caucasus and secure Russia's borders. This is certainly in Russia's interest as well.

    Georgia calls for peace and cooperation in the southern regions of Russia in the North Caucasus. The Georgian Government considers the development of relations with the North Caucasian nations necessary to make the North Caucasian people more aware of Georgia's goals and policies.

    2- Development of state institutions and consolidation of democracy:


    Interaction Policy:

    Georgia is seeking to develop appropriate policies and incentives to bring the occupied territories closer to its inhabitants and develop communication with other people in the country. In this regard, the government has drafted the document "Country Strategy for the Occupied Territories through Cooperation and Interaction" and "Action Plan for Interaction Policy".

    Georgia, on the other hand, calls for continued cooperation with the international community to use its existing capacity to implement an engagement policy. In addition, for the successful implementation of the engagement policy, it is necessary to coordinate humanitarian projects in the occupied territories with the Georgian government.

    4- Development of defense and security system of the country:


    In order to maintain national security, Georgia is making reforms to increase the efficiency of the country's security system. The cornerstone of Georgia's security sector reforms is a national security review process that provides close coordination and cooperation between security agencies and enhances the quality of military and civilian cooperation.

    Establishing an effective and efficient crisis management system for identifying, predicting and preventing crises and quickly eliminating or minimizing its negative consequences through coordinated cooperation of government agencies is one of the priorities of Georgia's security policy.

    Given the changes in Georgia's security environment, increasing the country's defense capability is one of the most important pillars of the country's security policy. The Georgian Government provides new facilities to familiarize the Georgian Armed Forces with new challenges and in order to prepare the Armed Forces to maintain the territorial integrity of various programs aimed at modernizing the training system, expanding the Armed Forces management system, enhancing capability. And bringing it closer to NATO standards and helping to converge with the Euro-Atlantic institutions.

     In this regard, the government has developed doctrines and seeks to effectively manage critical and important facilities and resources in the country. On the other hand, it is important to utilize an efficient crisis management system in the military and to develop cooperation between military and civilian institutions in crisis management and control.

    Georgia's defense policy is based on the principle of public defense. Successful implementation of this policy requires the creation of a civilian defense system, the development of the necessary infrastructure and an efficient reserve system. Working with allied nations to develop the reserve system and use their experience is essential. Georgia adheres to democratic values ​​and continues the process of integration with the Euro-Atlantic institutions. Therefore, enhancing the Georgian Armed Forces' compatibility with NATO is one of the priorities of Georgia's defense reform. Georgia is also seeking to expand cooperation with its allies to strengthen its defense capability.

    Georgia, on the other hand, is working to actively participate in NATO peace programs. The presence of Georgian troops in international NATO operations, on the one hand, increases Georgia's importance for security in the Euro-Atlantic area, and on the other hand, contributes to enhancing the Georgian military's military capability.

    5. Convergence with NATO and the EU:

    Membership in the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty is one of Georgia's most important foreign and security policy priorities. Georgia, which is considered to be the geographical, cultural and political part of Europe because of being located in the Black Sea and in the southeastern part of Europe, was separated from its natural development path due to historical developments. Georgia's choice now is to integrate with the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty to ensure its security and development.
    5.1 Membership in the North Atlantic Treaty:

    NATO membership is one of the most important goals of Georgia's foreign policy. For Georgia, NATO is a key instrument for ensuring security and sustainable development of the Euro-Atlantic area and is the foundation of its security architecture. Georgia's NATO membership can on the one hand guarantee Georgia's security and help stabilize the whole region. Meanwhile, ongoing reforms to join NATO will strengthen Georgia's democratic institutions and increase its defense capability. According to a poll conducted in 2008, Georgia's political and social circles agree on NATO membership. Since 2004, Georgia has made great strides in developing cooperation with NATO. NATO leaders at the 2008 Bucharest Summit agreed that Georgia would become a NATO member. This is reflected in the decisions of NATO leaders at the Strasbourg and Lisbon summits, as well as in the new NATO strategy.

    The Russian invasion of Georgia in 2008 failed to halt Georgia's development path and its integration process with NATO. With the formation of the NATO-Georgia Commission, the start of the implementation of Georgia's annual national cooperation plan with NATO has accelerated. Georgia is also an active member of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly. Georgia is also involved in international peacekeeping and NATO operations, as it also assumes responsibility for its collective security. The presence of Georgian troops in Afghanistan is important in this regard.

    5.2 Convergence with the European Union:

    Georgia's gradual integration with the European Union is one of the pillars of Georgia's political and economic development. Expanding cooperation with the European Union will strengthen Georgia's democratic institutions and consolidate the convergence process.

    Georgia calls for expanding the scope of cooperation and the use of the four freedoms (free movement of people, goods, services and capital) with the European Union. Georgia views EU's neighborhood policy as contributing to its integration with the European Union.

    Georgia continues negotiations on signing an agreement on EU membership to develop relations through political and economic integration, including the creation of a Free Trade Area.

    Georgia also seeks successful implementation of the visa facilitation and readmission agreements and the development of cooperation under the Mobility Partnership initiative. Georgia's goal is to achieve visa-free travel with the European Union.

    Georgia emphasizes the importance of developing cooperation with the European Union in various areas, especially in the fields of energy security, transport, education, culture and so on.

    Georgia calls for EU active participation in the process of resolving the Georgia-Russia conflict. In this regard, the international community recognizes the occupation of Georgia's territory by Russia. Georgia welcomes the European Parliament's November 17, 2011 resolution.

    Georgia also welcomes the EU's policy of cooperation and engagement with Russia. EU policy will be effective when it can help shape Russian foreign policy based on the principles of respect for the sovereignty of its neighbors and peaceful coexistence with them.

    Georgia, on the other hand, expects the European Union, as mediator of the August 2008 ceasefire agreement between Georgia and Russia, to pressure the Russian Federation to enforce the ceasefire agreement and adhere to international standards.

    6. Cooperation in the South Caucasus:

     
     
    Georgia contributes to the development of the region and transforms it into a peaceful, stable and attractive region, given the importance of developing neighborhood cooperation, with its political and economic efforts.

    Georgia has traditionally had good relations with the neighboring countries of the Republic of Azerbaijan and Armenia and believes that joint approaches can ensure future development of the region. In this regard, the development of regional cooperation and the creation of a common economic and market area will contribute to the establishment of peace and stability in the region. Meanwhile, Georgia's Black Sea capabilities could be a factor in expanding cooperation.

    Despite the differences, the three South Caucasian states could expand regional cooperation in the fight against terrorism, organized crime and drug trafficking and implement joint programs to protect the environment. Such cooperation can help develop economic cooperation and develop political dialogue between countries in the region.

    Resolving the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict threatens the security of countries in the region. Georgia therefore supports the peaceful resolution of the conflict with the active participation of international communities.

    Georgia wants to develop economic and trade cooperation with Azerbaijan and Armenia. Implementation of large-scale economic projects is also essential for security consolidation and can lead to the consolidation of trust and the formation of sustainable business relationships.

    Georgia's relations with the Republic of Azerbaijan have become strategic relations. Joint energy, transport and communications projects play an important role in the development of the two countries. The Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway project is one of the joint projects by which the two countries can increase their transit role in the region and join the International Rail Network. The launch of the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway will help develop economic relations between the East and the West and bring Georgia closer to Europe.

    Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan, Baku-Supsa and Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum are three major energy projects that will help stabilize the region in addition to its economic aspect. Georgia and Azerbaijan are also working on projects such as Nabucco, White Stream, Euro Asian Oil Corridor and Azeri Oil (Azerbaijan-Georgia-Romania Interconnector Project) to power Central Asian countries. And Azerbaijan will be transported to the world markets using transit capabilities of Georgia and Azerbaijan.

    Georgia also cooperates with the Republic of Azerbaijan in political, security and integration processes with the Euro-Atlantic institutions. Cooperation between the two countries within the framework of the Guam Union is also important. Azerbaijan's participation in the EU's Eastern Partnership program and NATO's Partnership for Peace program help to bring the two countries' interests in harmony and to adopt common positions.

    Georgia has close cooperation with Armenia in all fields. Georgia believes that the development of good relations and the expansion of cooperation between Georgia and Armenia can provide mutual benefits to develop the traditional relations between the two countries.

    Georgia seeks to expand economic cooperation with Armenia. Cooperation between the two countries in various sectors such as trade, transport and tourism will enhance the mutual relations.

    Georgia supports Armenia 's participation in the EU Eastern Partnership project and calls for expanding its cooperation with NATO. Georgia also wants to normalize Armenian-Turkish relations and is ready to help normalize relations between the two countries.

    7. Strengthening Foreign Relations:




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    Developing political relations and expanding foreign trade, attracting investment and strengthening social and cultural ties are among the priorities of the Georgian government. In this regard, Georgia expands its bilateral and multilateral cooperation with the international community.

    7.1- United States of America:

    Since Georgia's independence, the United States has consistently supported sovereignty, territorial integrity, the development of democratic institutions, the development of a market economy, and Georgia's integration with European and Euro-Atlantic institutions.

    Georgia is seeking to develop strategic relations with the United States, and this is reflected in the Partnership Charter signed in January 2009. The purpose of the Charter is to help develop defense, security, economic, energy, social and cultural partnerships through the implementation of working group decisions.

    The support of the US government and its emphasis on the necessity of ending the occupation of Georgian territories is of particular importance for the Tbilisi government.

    Georgia considers it essential to develop economic and trade partnerships with the United States and seeks to attract investment and increase exports of Georgian products to the United States. According to the preferential trade agreement between the two countries, it is possible to export Georgian products to the US at lower tariffs. Georgia also wants a free trade regime with the United States.

    US financial aid is important to Georgia. Post-war US $ 1 billion assistance, as well as US Millennium Challenge Corporation assistance, has been instrumental in the implementation of development plans and the development of democratic institutions. The United States also runs science and education programs to increase the knowledge and awareness of Georgian researchers and students.

    Georgia's defense capability has increased significantly through US assistance, and Georgia seeks to deepen these partnerships.

    The support of the US government and its emphasis on the necessity of ending the occupation of Georgian territories is of particular importance for the Tbilisi government.

    Georgia deems it necessary to develop economic and trade partnerships with the United States and seeks to attract investment and increase exports of Georgian products to the United States. According to the preferential trade agreement between the two countries, it is possible to export Georgian products to the US at lower tariffs. Georgia also wants a free trade regime with the United States.

    US financial aid is important to Georgia. Post-war US $ 1 billion assistance, as well as US Millennium Challenge Corporation assistance, has been instrumental in the implementation of development plans and the development of democratic institutions. The United States also runs science and education programs to increase the knowledge and awareness of Georgian researchers and students.

    Georgia's defense capability has increased significantly through US assistance, and Georgia seeks to deepen this cooperation.

     Georgia continues its political and military support for the US-proposed coalition. Georgian troops trained under US training and training programs are participating in international peacekeeping operations, including the NATO-led ISAF program in Afghanistan. Georgia and the United States are also working to combat nuclear smuggling.

    7.2 - Ukraine:

    Georgia seeks opportunities for strategic partnership with Ukraine. Increasing Ukraine's role as a democratic and peace-loving country can help bring about peace and stability in the region.

    Georgia and Ukraine have bilateral and international political and security cooperation within the framework of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Black Sea Cooperation Organization and the Guam Union. Georgia also called for the development of cooperation with Ukraine in the process of integration with the Euro-Atlantic institutions and welcomed its participation in the EU's Eastern Partnership project.

    7.3 - Turkey:

    Turkey is a regional partner of Georgia, which has always supported Georgia's territorial integrity and sovereignty and its efforts to develop political, economic and security institutions. By the way, Turkey is Georgia's largest trading and economic partner, and the two countries have established free trade and free trade regimes. The development of economic cooperation and the successful implementation of energy and transport projects are of strategic importance to the two countries. Georgia and Turkey cooperate within the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum pipeline projects and are actively involved in projects such as Bamako, White Stream, Euro-Asian Oil Transmission Corridor and They have the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line. In addition, Turkey as a NATO member is one of Georgia's most important military partners. Georgia wants to expand military and security cooperation with Turkey.

    Cooperation between the two countries in the cultural field is also important. The two countries have started active cooperation in the field of cultural heritage. The development of this cooperation is in the interest of both countries.

    7.4 - Cooperation with other countries of the world:

    Georgia is working with these countries to draw on the experiences of the Baltic States and gain support for their membership in NATO and the European Union.

    Georgia is seeking to develop cooperation with Southeast European countries and the Dinai Settlement. Their support for Georgia's territorial integrity and ongoing reforms is of particular importance. Georgia welcomes the development of cooperation with Maldives and Belarus and their participation in the Eastern Partnership project.

    Georgia, as a link between Europe and Asia, is considering developing cooperation, particularly economic, energy and transport cooperation with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. The purpose of this partnership is to help develop trade and the free flow of capital between the West and the East. Central Asian countries aware of Georgia's political developments for government d

    8. Combating international terrorism and transnational organized crime:


    The purpose of Georgia's anti-terrorism policy is to provide security for its citizens and institutions. Georgia is a party to the UN Convention against Terrorism and is expanding its cooperation in this regard.

    To achieve this important goal, Georgia is working closely with the United Nations Committee on the Fight against Terrorism and developing anti-terrorist units, including four special units of the country's armed forces and police. Georgia is cooperating with neighboring Azerbaijan, Turkey and Armenia to prevent terrorists from using Georgian soil, to protect its borders and to monitor customs.

    The occupied territories of Georgia have now become the source of terrorist threats. In recent years, terrorist operations in Georgia have been planned and carried out by Russian agents. To counteract this danger, the international community needs to step up its pressure on Russia to pay a heavy political price if the terrorist attacks are repeated.

    Georgia is working with the International Atomic Energy Agency and other international organizations and countries around the world on the importance of combating nuclear terrorism to prevent the use of Georgian soil for the production and transportation of nuclear and radioactive materials. Georgia is concerned about the situation in the occupied territories in the face of the proliferation of nuclear and radioactive materials.

    Georgia is actively involved in the international counterterrorism coalition by participating in international counterterrorism operations. As international terrorism poses a serious threat to world security, failure to operate in Afghanistan will have a negative impact on the security of countries in the world and the region, including Georgia.

    9- Economic Security Policy:


    Georgia's economic policy is based on the principle of economic freedom, and the main purpose of its economic security policy is to provide appropriate conditions to help the country's development, increase people's welfare, and make the economy and people more competitive.

    Strengthening macroeconomic stability by adopting sound fiscal policy, minimizing inflation, reducing public spending, reducing external debt, eliminating budget deficits and improving the tax system are among the top priorities of Georgia's economic security policy. Be.

     The development of constructive economic relations with the European Union, the US and the countries of the region is at the core of the country's economic and security policies. Developing economic cooperation and border relations can play an effective role in reducing tensions. Georgia is ready to cooperate with Azerbaijan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Iran, Armenia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, the Middle East, the Black Sea Basin and other Central and Eastern Asian countries.

    Georgia considers it necessary to develop the country's transport infrastructure, increase the utilization of the country's transit capacity and integrate with international transport systems.

    Georgia's economic policy ensures that the government does not interfere in corporate activity, maintain economic freedom and personal property, improve the tax system, and implement sound fiscal policy.

    Georgia seeks to provide people with access to good and inexpensive products. Other goals of Georgia's economic policy are to create a favorable environment for attracting investment, enhancing the competitiveness of the people and the economy, and creating employment. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to create a competitive labor market. At the same time, helping to train a skilled workforce through targeted education policy will increase the competitiveness of the people and the economy.

    10. Energy Security Policy:


    The government considers it necessary to provide energy security, attract investment, strengthen international cooperation in the energy sector, and develop the country's energy infrastructure. At the same time, the Georgian Government emphasizes the need for diversification of energy resources and its suppliers and participation in regional and international projects. In this context, the Georgian Government, within the framework of the South Energy Corridor Program, calls for the implementation of new projects, including projects for the transfer of oil and gas from the Caspian Sea and Central Asia to Europe via Georgia.

    Georgia is part of an important energy corridor and is well aware of its role in transferring Caspian and Central Asian energy resources to Europe through a variety of routes. The Georgian ports, the Baku-Supsa pipeline, the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum pipeline are among the major active projects, and Georgia is working to implement these projects effectively.

    Development of energy infrastructure and increased utilization of water and other clean energy resources are other priorities of Georgia's energy security policy. Georgia is also continuing to work with foreign investors to exploit renewable energy sources.

    Georgia is seeking to become the largest exporter of electricity in the region, as construction of new power lines and power plants and rebuilding of old plants help reduce dependence on imported energy sources and increase energy security in the country. In this regard, it is necessary to increase electricity production and build power transmission lines.

    11. Educational policy:


    Complementing the country's education system is a top priority for the Georgian government. Comprehensive reforms of the country's education system are being implemented to increase the quality of secondary, higher and vocational education and to help build a knowledge-based society. In this regard, creating a suitable environment for the development of science and active participation of the private sector in the educational system is one of the necessities of the country.

    The Georgian education system should provide citizens with job opportunities and access to knowledge.

    One of the reforms in the education system is the implementation of foreign language education programs, especially English and computer education in secondary schools.

    Another priority in the reform of the country's education system is the development of vocational education. Development of the Georgian economy doubles the need for the development of vocational education.

    The development of higher education is also important for the country's development. Increasing the quality of higher education in Georgia is one of the prerequisites for the development of scientific capacities and development of the country's economy. At the same time, expanding international cooperation in the fields of research, science and technology seems necessary.

    12. Social and Health Security Policy:


    Helping alleviate poverty, increase living standards, and form a powerful middle class are goals of Georgia's social and health policy.

    The government seeks to promote employment and promote social security by providing employment and social security to the people.

    The main aspects of the health policy of the country are as follows: helping to improve the quality of medical services, developing the medical education system, increasing the effectiveness of the system of prevention and management of communicable diseases, preventing and treating dangerous diseases (AIDS, addiction, tuberculosis, etc.), developing the surveillance system. Emerging laboratories and epidemics to prevent dangerous infections of artificial or natural origin, launch rapid response systems, help promote healthy lifestyles, make medical services accessible through the development of health insurance systems and accessible Medical services for the poor below the poverty line.

    13. Cyber Security Policy:

    Georgia intends to create an information security system that will enable it to counteract cyberattacks, minimize its impact, and rapidly rebuild infrastructure.

    Given the importance of securing confidential information and maintaining the country's information systems, Georgia provides the legal basis and infrastructure needed to upgrade information technologies and protect information.

    Georgia seeks to expand its partnership with the United States and use its experiences to secure cyber security.

    14. Environmental Security Policy:

    The goal of Georgia's environmental security policy is to protect people and the environment by preventing environmental pollution, reducing natural resources and crises caused by natural disasters or human activity. Particular attention is paid to the prevention of natural disasters such as floods, avalanches, landslides, earthquakes and industrial accidents.

    Effective measures to prevent environmental pollution, prevent pollution of water and land resources, preserve forests, prevent pollution of the Black Sea, and clean up areas of Georgia from radioactive waste are other goals of Georgia's environmental security policy.

    Given the need for regional and international cooperation to provide environmental security, Georgia calls for the active participation of the international community in preventing Russia's environmental degradation of the occupied territories. The Georgian government, using its political means, will try to help the Russian international community prevent the illegal transfer of Abkhazian building materials and timber to Russia for the Sochi Winter Olympics, an environmental threat to Georgia and the region.

    Georgia is cooperating with the countries of the region on environmental security. Georgia's cooperation with Azerbaijan, Armenia and Turkey can help strengthen the region's environmental security.

    15- Preservation of cultural heritage:

    Through cooperation with UNESCO and other international organizations, Rajasthan seeks to preserve and develop its unique cultural heritage and artifacts that are part of the world's cultural heritage. In this regard, it is necessary to adopt a policy of preserving cultural heritage with the aim of assisting Georgia's ancient and contemporary art and preserving its architectural monuments. Georgia will also work with countries where Georgian monuments and cultural values ​​are preserved in their museums or libraries to preserve their overseas cultural heritage.

    Georgia's historical and cultural monuments in Russian-occupied areas are at risk of extinction. Therefore, the international community must contribute to the preservation of these works. Cooperation with UNESCO, the International Center for the Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM), the International Council for the Preservation of Antiquities and Places (ICOMOS) and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is of particular importance.

    16. Population policy:

    Georgia supports programs to increase fertility, reduce child mortality, promote healthy lifestyles, and increase life expectancy, to improve the demographic situation.

    The Georgian government seeks to provide a favorable environment for the return of Georgians abroad and other Georgian nationals residing abroad. In this regard, the government encourages its outreach to overseas Georgian communities by encouraging their efforts to preserve the Georgian language and to communicate with the historic homeland.

    Georgia is concerned about the Russian Federation's policy of artificially and illegally changing the population structure of Abkhazia and the Russian settlement there. Georgia will work to prevent Russia's efforts to help preserve Abkhazian ethnic and cultural identity.

    17. Civil Convergence Policy:

    The Georgian government is helping to ensure the integration and participation of ethnic minorities in society. The government also cares about developing Georgian language teaching among ethnic minorities and preserving their identities and cultures. This policy is reflected in the National Theory of Civil Integration and the Action Plan.

    The government provides facilities for the teaching of the Georgian language and its use by the ethnic minority to ensure their rights and freedoms.

    Georgia also seeks to provide the conditions for civil integration of immigrants who have returned to their homeland.

    18. Relations Policy with Georgian Overseas Communities:

    Maintaining the identity of the overseas compatriots is one of the priorities of the Georgian government. The government is helping to launch Georgian language courses, weekly schools, Georgian public schools, folklore groups, and arts groups. Georgia also strives to connect with fellow citizens living in different countries and implement joint projects.

     

  • Tbilisi Shopping Centers

     
     
    After the turmoil and insecurity in Turkey, many Iranian tourists planning to travel to Istanbul and other Turkish cities shifted to other countries in the region. According to figures released last summer alone, Iranian visitors to a country like Georgia grew by 5 percent. The unprecedented growth of Iranians in Georgia has led to the introduction of attractions in the Georgian capital, Tbilisi and other cities.

    One of the most popular leisure activities for travelers, especially women, is shopping for souvenirs and a variety of travel and business products while traveling to a city. Although Tbilisi is the capital of Georgia, it is not that big and there are not many options. However, we have arranged for you to get to know the business centers and markets of Tbilisi and to tailor your program to your interests. The following is a list of the various options for you to come up with in order of popularity and importance.
     
     

    1- Tbilisi Mall

    Tbilissi Mal is one of the largest shopping malls in Tbilisi, the Georgian capital located at the far northwest and outside of Tbilisi. Not long ago, the mall experienced a disaster similar to Plasco's and disappeared altogether. Of course, this large shopping mall has now been renovated and opened to the public.

    In fact, to get to Tbilisi you have to cross the Batumi Tbilissi Road and go 16 kilometers. Tbilissi Mall with 2 shops of famous brands, 2 kiosks, 2 cafes, 2 Japars, 1.5 m۱۵ hypermarket and 2 m۱۰۰۰ recreational space are definitely the first choice of any traveler in Tbilisi for shopping. In addition to the prestigious apparel dealerships, the complex also features entertainment venues such as the Carrefour Cinema, Restaurant and Hypermarket. Tbilisi's green and green interior design also varies depending on the seasons, meaning plants and flowers are used to decorate the season to beautify the mall.

    Carrier hypermarket is a medium and very affordable chain chain where you can buy your own food, casual clothing and home appliances.
     
    Read more at this mall: Tbilisi Mall | Shopping in the Georgian capital
    Opening hours:10_22

    Address: D. Aghmashenebeli Alley, ۱۶th kmTbilisi,Georgia

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    2- East Point
    In just 2 minutes drive from downtown you will reach the modern day shopping center of East Point. Apart from 3 shops with international and famous brands, you can find a range of fun and varied options for children and adults. These include bowling, 3D cinemas, famous toy shops, children's clubs, restaurants, and Carrefour's large hypermarket cafes. Gloria Jeans, Cotton, LC Wakeiki, Mango and Zara are some of the famous clothing brands of this mall. McDonald's and Wendy's are also among the restaurant chain brands.

    As mentioned earlier, Carrefour hypermarket is a medium and very affordable chain that can provide the food, casual clothing and home appliances you need.
    Opening hours:10_22

    Address: Al. Tvalchrelidze St. ۲, Kakheti Highway, Tbilisi,Georgia

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    3- Dry Bridge Market

    Bridge Drive is one of those bustling markets that you can visit all week long. You can find all kinds of local and handmade souvenirs, all sorts of jewelry, silverware, glassware, daggers and even memorabilia from the Soviet Republic. The best time to visit the Bridge Drive Market is the weekends. From Azadi Square to this market you are only a 5 minute walk away.

    Opening hours:10_22

    Address: Dry Market, Freedom Square, Tbilisi,Georgia

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    4- Pekini Street

    Beijing Street is not a shopping mall, but simply a street in Tbilisi. On either side of this street, you will find many shops and dealers of famous brands. You will find every shop and shop you can imagine on Peking Street. One of the noteworthy shops on this street is the newly opened Dunnams store. Next to it is a River Island shop that offers a decent collection of clothing. If you are looking for a bargain shop, the "I Love Moda Lux" shop is the right choice for you. Other popular brands on the street include Puma, Collins, Reeback, Lotto, Benton, Mengo and Garfield.

    There are also branded jewelery stores like Delphi and Carla Bassi on Pekin Street. If you like to have some fun on this street, don't miss the famous Luca Polarae ice cream. McDonald's, Texas and New York Burger Fast Foods are also delicious options.


    Address: Pekini Street; Tbilisi, Georgia

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    5-Shopping Gallery Merani

    Marani Shopping Center is a 4-storey complex located in the center of Tbilisi. Although it may seem small, you will find many international and international brands representing Marani. Brands like Zara, Kotun, Massima Dutti, Bata and others are in this complex. Other features of the Merani Shopping Center include several restaurants, cafés and terraces. You can also reach the mall by subway.

    Opening hours:10_22

    Address: Shota Rustaveli Ave, Tbilisi, Georgia

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    6- Tbilisi Central

    Central Tbilisi's shopping center is located in Wuxalley, where you can easily reach the buses by subway or subway. The shopping center offers a variety of clothing, bags and shoes, digital accessories, a variety of restaurants and cafes and a hypermarket.

    Opening hours:10_22

    Address: Station Square or Vukzali, ۲ Tbilisi, Georgia

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    ۷- Karvasla

    The Carvasla Shopping Center is a 4-storey complex, located on Dadiani Street in Tbilisi. This two-storey shopping mall has parking for 2 cars. On the other 5 floors, the mall has more than 2 shops. Caravasla Shopping Center offers a wide variety of clothing, bags and shoes, home appliances, restaurants and cafes and entertainment areas such as children's playgrounds.

    Opening hours:10_22

    Address: Nadzaladevi, st. Tsotne Dadiani ۷, Tbilisi, Georgia

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    8- Lilo Mall

    The Lilo Center is the first shopping mall in Tbilisi to be officially rented by the Georgian government. The Lilo Shopping Center offers a variety of products at affordable prices that can make a pleasant purchase for yourself. At the Lilo Shopping Center you will find both chain stores and single-store products. Interestingly, the mall supplies not only the products needed in the region, but also the Caucasus and other countries. The products of this mall include cosmetics, clothing, jewelry and more.

    You can use the subway or taxi to reach Lilo.
    Opening hours:10_22

    Address: str.Kakheti Highway ۱۱۲, Tbilisi, Tbilisi, Georgia

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    9- GTC

    Another of the major shopping malls in Tbilisi is the GTC Complex where you will find world-renowned brands in its shops. Various products such as jewelry, ladies' clothing, men's clothing, jeans, home appliances, musical instruments, shoes, toys, watches and more are found in this shopping center. The GTC Shopping Center is two-storey and is located on Vukua Tbilisi Street.
     

    Address: Vekua st., ۳ , Tbilisi, Georgia

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    10-Megaline

    Megaline Shopping Center is a wholesaler of home appliances but also sells clothing, perfumes, shoes, souvenirs and books. There is also a bank, currency exchange and parking in Meghalene.
     
    Opening hours:10_22

    Address: ۰۱۵۴,Kereselidze str I turn. №۱۲, Tbilisi, Georgia

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    11- Meidan Bazaar

    There is no need to stroll around in this square and commercial space, and if you do not have much time, the Market Square is the right place for you. The Market Square is right in the heart of the city and the historic square of Tbilisi. In this tunnel and underground market of the city, you will find all the attractive crafts for tourists. You'll also find all of Georgia's handmade items, including local socks, postcards, sauces, spices and tea. Since all products are local and the market space is local, the goods are not priced and you can often bargain.

    Opening hours:10_22

    Address: Meidan Square , Tbilisi, Tbilisi, Georgia

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    12- Eurasia Shopping Mall

    The Eurasia Shopping Center is a modern, 2-storey complex that opened in year 6. The complex is 2 m۷۴۰۰ in size and has over 100 fashion and clothing stores with world-renowned brands. In the center of Harid, besides the shop, there is also a recreational area.

    Opening hours:10_20

    Address: ۱۵ Omar Khizanishvili St, Tbilisi ۰۱۶۷, Georgia

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    13-Didube Plaza

    Diobuja Plaza is a complex consisting of several sections comprising an administrative, commercial, recreational and residential complex. The complex has convenient access from within the city center.
     
    Opening hours:8-18

    Address: Akaki Tsereteli Ave, Tbilisi, Georgia

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    14- City Mall Gldani

    City Mall Goldani Shopping Center is located in one of the busiest areas of Tbilisi. It has a 4-storey shopping center with a variety of shops, cafes, restaurants and a children's entertainment center. In total, there are three shops with different items in the shopping center, most of which are famous and international brands. The Vase Shopping Center has considerable design and design, and is well accessible from all over the city.

    Opening hours:9;30_22

    Address: ۲۷ Omar Khizanishvili St, Tbilisi, Georgia

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    Last word

    Have you ever traveled to Tbilisi and Georgia?

    Have you had any shopping experience in said shopping malls?

      Share your thoughts and experiences with us and tell us which city attractions this time to introduce.

    Your consultant Elham Taghi 995596692000 + in the Old Town of Tbilisi

Direct contact to the following numbers

legal adviser +995-598852000

Georgian Language Legal Advisor +995-596692000

Investment Adviser +995-5551156655

Contact via telegram, WhatsApp Viber is possible.

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